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characterised by features of the social-democratic state. So dominant an ideology is social democracy that it is now almost to impossible to imagine that a modern state could be shaped by any other beliefs. social democracy A reformist and moderate version of socialism that accepts a significant proportion of market capitalism, rather than seeking its outright abolition

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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La gauche de la gauche

profound effect on parties and protest groups alike. For Hardt and Negri, social movements today represent a fundamental break with the past. Traditional distinctions between economics and politics are dissolving as conflicts take on a wider ‘biopolitical’ dimension and each struggle ‘leaps to a global level’ (Hardt and Negri, 2000, 56). Certainly, as we shall see below, it is true that groups setting out to address specific concerns are increasingly being drawn into wider struggles, while the decline of social democracy gives an intensely political dimension to the

in The French party system
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twenty-first century. The Right has to fight for power on the ground laid by the Third Way – responding to the Third Way agenda to make its way back, just as the Third Way itself was built on the ground left by ‘old’ social democracy and the New Right. In Britain, for instance, the Conservative Party’s attempt to return to power after New Labour’s 1997 victory was at first based

in The Third Way and beyond

peculiarities of historical processes as they are recorded in the complexities of historical evidence. References Unless indicated, the place of publication is London. Adelman, P. (1972) The Rise of the Labour Party, 1880–1945 Bealey, F. and Pelling, H. (1958) Labour and Politics, 1900–1906. A History of the Labour Representation Committee Black, L. (1999) ‘Social democracy as a way of life: fellowship and the Socialist Union, 1951–9’, Twentieth Century British History, 10:4 Chun, L. (1993) The British New Left, Edinburgh ITLP_C07.QXD 18/8/03 Alastair J. Reid 9:59 am

in Interpreting the Labour Party
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Class cultures, the trade unions and the Labour Party

institutions of the State, including its ‘ideological apparatus’. ‘Outside the realm of social services or nationalized industries the visitor would not have observed a social democracy’, with the result that the political settlement of 1945 depended on the physical survival of the industrial working class, rather than the diffusion within civil society of social democracy as an ideology (1998: 535–6). Concluding remarks If our understanding of a party cannot fail to depend on our understanding of the social classes which form its main constituency, Labour history must be

in Interpreting the Labour Party

, London , Demos . Frazer , E. ( 1999 ) Problems of Communitarian Politics: Unity and Conflict , Oxford , Clarendon Press . Giddens , A. ( 1997 ) ‘ Anomie of the people ’, Guardian , 31 July . Giddens , A. ( 1998 ) The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy , Cambridge , Polity

in The Third Way and beyond

claims made for it. Policy considerations, while acquiring the label ‘pragmatic’ or even ‘common-sense’, can be ideological in their underlying assumptions, in a sense that is associated with social democracy. From the wartime coalition government until the early 1980s all the major parties, both in and out of government, largely agreed on the basics of government policy. These included the following: a commitment to full

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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from democratic socialism and social democracy as to be worth studying as distinct ideological movements. The collapse of the USSR and its empire in Eastern Europe during 1989–91 is often hailed by Western conservatives as vindicating their belief that Marxism is a failed ideological system, unrealistic and of no value as a political movement or an ideological tool. However, for many Western Marxists the demise of the

in Understanding political ideas and movements

and democratization in International Political Economy tend to pit the kind of neomedievalist, fragmentation-of-governance thesis presented above against what is often seen to be the more idealist ‘cosmopolitan democracy’ thesis (Archibugi and Held 1995). There is also a third position – that the ability of states to reconstruct governmentality is still strong and that social democracy can be reconstituted along more familiar statist lines by incorporating some neoliberal features (Hirst and Thompson 1999; Giddens 1998). Nevertheless, the task of globalizing the

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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considered part of a capitalist project to exploit the working classes; in the late 1980s, when Jacques Delors led the European Commission, there was a shift towards seeing it as a potential source of social democracy; and now, although the mainstream of the Labour Party remains relatively pro-European, the EU’s failure to develop its competences in social policy has triggered a return to Euroscepticism on the left. The way forward: towards deliberative democracy? There are of course various positions taken about the way forward. Communitarians often argue that EU

in Democratization through the looking-glass