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region.35 Regime responses to protest movements were framed as necessary retorts to perfidious action from fifth columnists supported by Tehran. Conflicts emerging from the fragmentation or weakness of state structures took on new meaning as they became shaped by geopolitical agendas. Local groups became embroiled in regional dynamics and vice versa, albeit the capacity of regional actors to affect change locally was determined by both power and perceptions of legitimacy.36 In the early stages of protests, events in Bahrain and Yemen were largely free of sectarian

in Houses built on sand

loyal colleague away from the West. Ankara regarded the resolution as an unjust, unfair, discriminatory step. Implicitly it put on Turkey the entire onus for the Greco–Cypriot–Kurdish and other minorities’ conflicts with Turkey. It was for Turkey to accept her contenders’ solutions and not the other way round, hence the pushing of Ankara to the end of the queue. Others were preferred to Turkey, including some who are less advanced, including the Cypriot Greeks. Inviting the Republic of Cyprus while not solving first the Island’s ethnic-political problems, and

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
The Member States between procedural adaptation and structural revolution

systems are open to debate. Perhaps the Union’s institutional checks and balances might appear more similar to those of the French Fifth Republic in times of cohabitation than the German models presented above. A simple dichotomy between centralised/fragmented or consensus/majoritarian models thus lacks sufficient explanatory power, but might just serve as a starting point for further research. 2444Ch18 3/12/02 444 2:07 pm Page 444 Conclusion It is therefore against all probabilities that an institutional and procedural device which has worked efficiently in one

in Fifteen into one?

, while the efforts of the Vic05 10/15/03 2:11 PM Page 121 PACIFISM AND THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR 121 Communists to exploit Spanish resistance for their own ends did harm to the cause of freedom.’ But ‘Enthusiasm for the Republic ran very high in all Left Wing circles in Britain’.58 Hugh Dalton, George Hicks and William Gillies, the Secretary of the Labour Party’s International Department, had been to see Blum in September 1936, and according to Dalton, Blum had ‘insisted that the policy of non-intervention in Spain was his policy. It was he and not Eden, as some

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
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Relations between the European Union and Mercosur

-standing, economic and cultural ties with Latin America. This argues that it is to be expected that there will be an increase in the EU’s involvement in Latin America as a result of there being an increase in shared values between both regions. The fifth explanation given in the literature, the interdependence debate, is related to the increasing levels of globalization. This argument predicts that if there are increasing levels of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Latin America, the EU’s involvement in the region will also increase. Finally, the sixth explanation is

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:

The most definitive statement of NATO’s initial war aims was issued as air operations continued in early April 1999. In forthright terms, NATO made clear that military action was driven by compelling humanitarian reasons and in support of the political aims of the international community: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) has repeatedly violated United

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security

. 196–222; Burk, Old World, p. 625.  60 Kissinger, YOU, pp. 162–3. On French policy during the ‘Year of Europe’ see: Aurélie Gfeller, Building a European Identity: France, the United States, and the Oil Shock, 1973– 1974 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012).   61 TNA: CAB 164/1232 Burke Trend to the Prime Minister, 19 March 1973.   62 TNA: PREM 15/1541 Record of a Conversation between the Prime Minister and the President of the French Republic, 21 May 1973.   63 TNA: CAB 134/3625 European Unit: Minutes of a Meeting Held in Conference Room E, Cabinet Office, 23 May

in A strained partnership?