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associated with Adam Smith and, later, the nineteenth-century ‘Manchester School’ of economists, dominated by the Anti-Corn Law activists John Bright and Richard Cobden, and were reiterated in the twentieth century by the ‘Chicago School’ and the ideas of Milton Friedman, von Hayek and Robert Nozick. However, the limitations of this approach led to the emergence of New Liberalism at the end of the nineteenth

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Bringing the Shows to life

mumming-style figures such as the devil and fireworks.52 The excellent and renowned history of the famous Sir Richard Whittington has a woodcut image of one of Whittington’s inaugural processions that clearly shows onlookers wielding fireworks (see Figure 9). As one can imagine, noise featured strongly in the experience of the event.53 Accordingly, Machyn’s impressions were primarily of colour and noise: then cam [one] [with a] drume and a flutt playng, and a-nodur with a gret f[ife?] . . . and then cam xvj trumpeters blohyng, and then cam in [blue] gownes, and capes and

in Pageantry and power
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presence of his mother in the earlier picture. In seeking to understand the war within Bush, Stone was inviting comprehension rather more than judgement. In that sense, W. is curiously sympathetic about the human condition as much as it is about power at the highest level. If Richard Nixon at the very least colluded in the malfeasance of his underlings, Bush is simply sidestepped in as much of a way as Colin Powell (Jeffrey Wright) is in the film. If there was a deeper nuanced message, then a degree of compassion –​not necessarily for Bush –​was the headline. Stone

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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ground-level histories.” This study draws from Gilroy’s ( 1993 ) theoretical framework of the Black Atlantic, but expands his geographical and theoretical purview in five important ways: (1) rather than exploring meanings created by individual sojourners such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Richard Wright, I specifically examine ground-level experiences of a group of Afro-Caribbeans; (2) I raise the

in Sport in the Black Atlantic
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Crossing the seas

independence. When the Irish BBC producer Henry Swanzy was relieved of his job on Caribbean Voices in 1954 he chose to be posted to the Gold Coast. The West Indian connections are powerfully visible in Kevin Gaines, ‘Revisiting Richard Wright in Ghana: black radicalism and the dialectics of diaspora’, Social Text , 67 (2001). 42

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain

admitted to the Pontypool workhouse with a broken thigh. His stay was a fairly short one, a workhouse official recording that Williams was ‘discharged at [his] own request’ less than three months later on 8 August. Sixteen-year-old Richard Moss was also admitted to the workhouse that year after being ‘burnt in a coal pit’, staying for two months, before requesting a discharge after he was ‘cured of his burns’.121 For most people, workhouse medical provision was a temporary measure and most left as soon as they were sufficiently recovered to resume life outside, often

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
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Clergy, orality and print in the Scottish Gaelic world

was reprinted almost thirty times in the course of the eighteenth century, and, in a suitably vernacular style, it became part of the oral culture of the Highlands and Islands.19 Recited and quoted as required, it may have compensated to some extent for the lack of liturgy and litany in the reformed context. From the middle of the eighteenth century, the catechisms were supplemented by a steady stream of translations of Puritan works into Gaelic, beginning with Richard Baxter’s Call to the Unconverted in 1750, which was translated by the Rev. Alexander MacFarlane of

in The spoken word
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-time low.43 Moreover, as one CIA brief explained in August 1974, the new Declaration of Principles would not guarantee when and if the EEC would ever act as a collective. As the brief neatly summarised: ‘Since EC members retain the option to act independently on many issues, there is the even greater problem of unpredictability. The US can never be certain when, or if, the Nine will act collectively.’44 Given this, it is hardly surprising that scholars refer to Kissinger’s initiative as ‘the year that never was’.45 Discord in Cyprus On 9 August 1974, Richard M. Nixon

in A strained partnership?
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The male leader’s autobiography and the syntax of postcolonial nationalism

mentors George Padmore, W. E. B. Du Bois, Simeon Bankole Wright, Dr Aggrey, Jomo Kenyatta and Nkrumah himself, while the ‘mottos’ and ideas of the Jamaican Marcus Garvey, he tells us, also ‘captivated’ him. Although of different ideological stripes and geographical locations, all those named are committed nationalists critical of colonisation. In a revealing conclusion to his mini-narrative of interconnected influence, Azikiwe writes: ‘I resolved to formulate my philosophy of life, so far as was practicable, towards the evangelisation of universal fatherhood, universal

in Stories of women

Source: Figures taken from Quincy Wright, A Study of War (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2nd edn, 1965), appendix 12, table 60, p. 672. League as totally ineffective, the prime minister embarked upon his own strategy to secure lasting peace by appeasement.’2 Not all the National government agreed with Chamberlain’s policy, and in February 1938 Anthony Eden resigned as Foreign Secretary after repeated disagreements with the Prime Minister over his conciliation towards Germany. Winston Churchill led the parliamentary opposition to appeasement outside of the

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1