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The Moslem question in Bosnia-Hercegovina

stems from a reading of Alija Izetbegović’s book, Islam Between East and West, published in 1980, which was supposedly a fundamentalist tract and a political programme for on Islamic expansionism into Western Europe. However, as Ajami counters: ‘Izetbegović’s book should have been a defense lawyer’s dream. An amateurish work, an intellectual hodge-podge, it is the product of an anxious assimilé, a child of the Western tradition reassuring himself that all the sources of his mind add up to a coherent whole, a man of our messy world born at the crossroads of cultures

in Balkan holocausts?
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from democratic socialism and social democracy as to be worth studying as distinct ideological movements. The collapse of the USSR and its empire in Eastern Europe during 1989–91 is often hailed by Western conservatives as vindicating their belief that Marxism is a failed ideological system, unrealistic and of no value as a political movement or an ideological tool. However, for many Western Marxists the demise of the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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that nations are ‘invented’ either by the literary endeavours of poets or the processes of state power. Nationalism nevertheless assumes that the ‘people’ or ‘the nation’ is an entity with sovereign rights and a fundamental unity of ‘blood’, ‘culture’ or ‘citizenship’. We shall now consider these elements of nationalism: sovereignty of the people; Ethnic nationalism and Civic nationalism. Sovereignty of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Economy, football and Istria

strategy was to stress the extent to which Croatian culture and history created a natural Western tendency within the economy. CIPA listed seven reasons why foreign investors should invest in Croatia, each of which was designed to emphasise the Western (and decidedly un-Balkan) orientation of the economy. These were: a stable and democratic political environment, a stable economy with low inflation, a favourable legal framework for foreign investors, a fast growing market, a skilled and well-educated workforce, a favourable geopolitical position, and a friendly

in The formation of Croatian national identity

. In January 1985 the ‘internationalist’ section led by Rouillan began a joint action with the West German Red Army Faction (RAF), announcing the formation of a united urban politico-military front in Western Europe, with NATO as its main target. That month Action Directe shot dead General Audran, the government minister responsible for French arms sales, and in April 1986 tried to kill Guy Brana, Deputy President of the employers

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
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How do the ‘state’ and the ‘nation’ differ? Are the state and the nation always linked in some way? To what extent do race, language, religion, government and shared culture and history shape nations? How do these factors vary from nation to nation? Is a ‘sense of nationhood’ a purely subjective thing? How far does a sense of nationhood exist in England, Wales and Scotland? In what ways does this sense, if it exists, manifest itself within modern British

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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their mentors in those Western democracies that have already undergone a significant incremental growth in judicial power (Sweet 2000). How far is judicial power compatible with democratic government? That key question will be addressed in the following way. First, the source and growth of judicial power in the Anglo-American tradition of jurisprudence will be outlined. Second, the United Kingdom’s experience of adopting the Human Rights Act 1998 is discussed as an example of a potential shift from political decision-making to judge-made decisions, and this potential

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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endeavours in the discipline. There is, similarly, no fixed definition of democratization. As a non-specialist I reflect here on the uses of democratization most prevalent in my own observations of external pressures for state reform in some southern and eastern African countries. Hence the writer’s exposure to the rhetoric of democratization stems largely from the normative discourse of Western governments and transnational agencies concerning desirable modes of institutional practice – what they often refer to as ‘good governance’ – in the political systems 24

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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Introduction The prison populations of western countries have grown dramatically over the past few years. All developed democracies are building new prisons and increasing expenditure on law and order enforcement agencies, particularly police and prison officers. This trend has been accompanied by a proliferation of measures aimed at hindering or repressing any one who might disturb the peace, such as

in Political concepts
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, we discuss the present position of ‘equality’: has its value decreased in general esteem because of the almost universal acceptance of liberal capitalism and its emphasis on ‘freedom’ as the prime political and social goal? POINTS TO CONSIDER Why has equality been valued less than liberty in Western societies? Do recent advances in genetics give the lie to the

in Understanding political ideas and movements