Western Front, December 1914’, The International Journal of the History of
Sport 32, 11–12 (2015): 1395–415.
59 There is little written on this as part of the British attitude, but see, for
example, William R. Brown, ‘The American girl and the Christmas tree:
World War II soldier poets look at what the G.I.s were fighting for’, Journal
of American Culture 8, 2 (1985): 25–30.
60 No.1 General Hospital, ‘Memorandum. 4. Routine, Christmas and Boxing
Day (21 December 1939), TNA WO 177/1091.
61 No.1 General Hospital, ‘Diary’ (26 December 1939), TNA WO 177
social and religious backgrounds, ‘Will we be able
to overcome the problems of our different cultures?’21 The contract,
however, generally benefitted both parties; male officer gained a
useful wife and the nurse gained social mobility, ‘or at least alleviation
from the monotony of military life’.22 Nurses used this social aspect
of their presence not only to negotiate their relationships with male
officers in general, but to renegotiate their relationships with male
medical officers in particular.
Nursing presence on hospital wards
Penny Summerfield identifies the
in 1977 Warnock was given the
chance to engage with a more contentious issue when the Labour
Home Secretary, Merlyn Rees, asked her to join a newly reconstituted Home Office advisory committee on the administration of the
1876 Cruelty to Animals Act.
Like many aspects of biomedical research, animal experiments became increasingly controversial during the 1970s. This
stemmed largely from a public outcry over the use of dogs in
smoking research, a growing belief that animal tests should be
replaced by ‘humane’ alternatives such as tissue culture, and a
focus on the
Released 27 March 1956, Ealing Studios. The film follows the lives of five
student nurses in the young NHS. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0050428/
[accessed 28 September 2016].
50 Julia Hallam identifies this film as one in which the nurse’s role as patient
carer is subordinated to nurse as the one who cares for the male doctor,
thereby playing into post-war tropes of a domesticity. Nevertheless, as
Hallam argues, ‘the deep happiness to be found in nursing is that of being in
service’. Julia Hallam, Nursing the Image: Media, Culture and Professional
discovered to be caused by a bacterium, Corynebacterium diphtheria , and tended to attack through the larynx and the tonsils. Complications could include heart disease and paralysis, sometimes leading to death. In Britain during the 1930s, before the introduction of immunisation, an average of 58,000 cases were seen each year, with 2,800 deaths. 4
However, Britain had not always been so enthusiastic about the procedure. British public health authorities had come to adopt immunisation relatively late, compared to those in other Western nations