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Maps as foams and the rheology of digital spatial media

A conceptual framework for considering mapping projects as they change over time

Cate Turk

map that affects how it looks and is interpreted. The ‘paramap’ includes map elements such as title and legend (known as the ‘perimap’) but also extends to any documentation that explains what the map is showing (the ‘epimap’). Maps thus change when a website design is updated or the map is re-presented in new sites, such as when a map is republished in a news report. In each of these four ways, the content of the map and/or the interface is dynamic. Maps move, acquire data, have multiple authors and are adapted and re-purposed. The re-presentation of maps in a

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Mark Harvey

provide a distinctive basis for collaboration and competition in the former by establishing industry-wide common standards. In Britain, in contrast, in the absence of specified quality and technical standards, quality and cost can more easily become opposing objectives of competition. Likewise, contractual law, a propensity to litigate, and the fostering of trust have been analysed as being central to different forms of inter-firm relations which fundamentally affect the nature and focus of competitive forces in Britain, Germany and Italy. Institutional and legal

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Adrian Hyde-Price

a balance of power. The decisions of states ‘are shaped by the very presence of other states as well as by interactions with them’. It is the ‘situation in which they act and interact’ which ‘constrains them from some actions, disposes them towards others, and affects the outcomes of their interactions’ (Waltz 1979 : 65). The problems with neo-realist explanations of state behaviour in late modern

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Andrew Bowie

different forms of articulation which did not require a wholesale split between verbal language and music; it also elucidated important differences between the way each can come to be employed and can affect its recipient. From this perspective the – hyperbolic – alternative of regarding music as ‘higher’ than verbal language for metaphysical reasons makes sense in relation to a specific historical situation, namely one in which the universalising nature of verbal language is felt to be inadequate to the individual experience of the modern subject. In this view the practice

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Bonnie Evans

individual ‘to perceive and pay attention to certain objects or situations’ and to ‘become pleasurably or unpleasurably excited about those objects whenever they are perceived’. These tendencies, which were ‘cognitive, affective and conative’, influenced the development of individual subjectivity and character. 19 Any lack or deficiency in particular instinctive drives would affect

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Joe Gerlach

online interfaces, interactive platforms and protocols (Zook et al., 2004; Zook and Graham, 2007). In calling for a ‘cartography unbound’, a mapping untethered from the stultifying impulses of representational and temporal certitude, a c­ ertain degree of conceptual and empirical disorientation and disruption will be inevitable, such are the vernacular energies required to do the work of unhinging cartography from its determinedly Euclidean grid. The upshot, however, is a re-orientation of sorts; an understanding of cartography that valorises its affective, virtual and

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‘Mortgaged to music’

New retro movies in 1990s Hollywood cinema

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Philip Drake

particularly vivid, intensively experienced, memories that are tied to a strong affective and emotional response. Memories of the footage of the assassination of President Kennedy, the death of Princess Diana, or the resignation of Margaret Thatcher are examples of this; through their media circulation and repetition their resonance increases. Disentangling the event from its performance in the media becomes

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Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies and Sukhwant Dhaliwal

incident also reminds us of the fragility, or even the stupidity, of contemporary immigration policy. Where policy is operating primarily at the level of affect, psychological manipulation and appearances, there is always the potential for this to blow back at those with power. Making things seem ‘real’ is an ongoing challenge, especially for the Home Office because – in a way which no other Whitehall department faces to the same extent – media

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Living Research Two

Emotions and research

Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies and Sukhwant Dhaliwal

that the focus group was cut short; there was less time for others to speak, resulting in a partial and shorter interview. For Kamala Visweswaran ( 1994 ) such redacted accounts are full of vital information. They can force us to feel and hopefully investigate further how historical and insti­tutional contexts can affect the micro-interactions and ethical relationships produced by a project. For Riessman ( 2005 : 473), ‘The investigator

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Living Research Five

Public anger in research (and social media)

Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies and Sukhwant Dhaliwal

Dean suggests in Blog Theory ? Dean asks whether social media constitute ‘communication for its own sake’, and cautions that ‘the affective charges we transmit and confront reinforce and extend affective networks without encouraging – and, indeed, by displacing – their consolidation into organized political networks’ ( 2010 : 119). That is, Dean suggests that interactions on social media do not go beyond sharing humour or outrage. But we