Search results

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 66 items for :

  • Manchester Religious Studies x
Clear All

, it also reflects changes in stance and in historical and sociological valuations, as well as reactions to popular views and feelings towards those who had abandoned the Jewish religion and chose to live within the Christian world. From the twelfth century on, there is substantive difficulty in arriving at a clear halakhic decision regarding the issue of those who became Christians. To people of that time, the earlier, inclusive approach of Rashi seemed excessive, but neither did they wish to explicitly state that they had given up hope of the apostates’ return to

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe

military highways, built first by General Wade and then by William Caulfield, which opened up certain parts of the Highlands (but by no means all) to influences from further south, the Lowlands and England.2 As far as the Highlands were concerned, the most obvious changes were social and cultural. As Allan MacInnes has put it, ‘The immediate aftermath of the Forty-Five was marked by systematic state terrorism, characterised by a genocidal intent that verged on ethnic cleansing . . . chiefs and leading gentry abandoned their traditional obligations as protectors and

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland

Finland the social dynamics behind witch trials changed during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.1 At this period, the authorities took a paradoxical lead both in initiating trials and in suppressing them, and as a consequence the neighbourhood’s importance diminished in certain respects. Yet the benevolent magic prosecuted during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was firmly rooted in the neighbourhood community, the importance of which cannot be discounted. Witchcraft and witch beliefs were closely connected to questions of power and

in Beyond the witch trials

2 Forced conversion during the First Crusade Apostasy and Jewish identity Forced conversion during the First Crusade T he tendency that emerges from Rashi’s words reflects a decisive leadership approach, establishing a clear direction of attempting to return converts to Christianity to Judaism. The self-definition of Judaism its leaders sought to establish was that of a religion that felt confident in its ability to deal with Christian theological claims and in its political ability to deal with the threat of forced conversion. This situation changed during

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)

‘destroy.’ However, the earlier perception did not change much. The mumar is a person who continues to live within the framework of Jewish society, but no longer follows the meticulous observance commanded therein. Rather, he exchanges or substitutes that meticulousness for other practices. In a lengthy discussion in Tractate Hullin (pp. 2–6), it becomes clear that there are different kinds of mumarim or meshumadim, all of whom continued to live within the Jewish community. For example: there is a mumar la-’aralot, who does not wish to have himself circumcised; or a

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Beyond the witch trials

of intellectual and social leaps. It should rather be seen as a period of subtler renegotiation between cultures, and a period when the relationship between private and public beliefs became more problematic and discrete, and therefore more difficult for the historian to detect. The study of witchcraft and magic provides us with an important means of exploring these broad changing patterns of social relations and mentalities, just as it has done much to help our understanding of social relations in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century society. Yet the ‘beyond’ in the

in Beyond the witch trials

4 Beyond the witch trials Responses to witchcraft in Sweden Responses to witchcraft in late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Sweden The aftermath of the witch-hunt in Dalarna Marie Lennersand The witch-hunts of the early modern period must have left a profound mark on many local communities. The intense trials and executions which took place during the second half of the seventeenth century were dreadful events that touched many people. All those involved, from the accused and the witnesses to the judges and the clergy, had to make decisions that changed

in Beyond the witch trials

. This evidence suggests that popular beliefs and practices concerning the fear of witchcraft and other malign forces changed little after the period of the witch trials, except in minor details, and continued through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and well into the twentieth. These objects constitute a large and important body of evidence attesting very positively to the widespread use of and continuation of these practices. At least in terms of the material evidence, it seems that the decline of magic was a slow and long-drawn-out affair. Dating and

in Beyond the witch trials

because he was jealous of the beauty of the Christians. On the deeper level, we have here a complex psychological perception that suggests feelings of true inferiority in this area, for the author of the responsum accepts the statement of the apostate, which he interprets in various ways.29 Why did such an extreme attitude take hold in relation to the convert to Christianity? Were these merely theological conclusions in light of the growing phenomenon of conversion to Christianity? Towards the end of the twelfth century the attitude towards apostates changed

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
The literature of pietists (Ashkenazic hasidim)

ultimately become a righteous Jewish proselyte.10 In this manner, the process of change in the definition of consciousness and identity was completed: the Jew who became a Christian was not a Jew in his essence; rather, his soul was incarnated in a Jewish body by mistake, while in practice his soul was that of a Christian. Therefore, the fact that he abandoned his Judaism need not disturb us, as now the ‘error’ has been corrected and we may relate to him as he always was—namely, a Christian. Vice versa with regard to proselytes: the soul of the future convert to Judaism

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe