theory. It defines strategic objectives and identifies the main rivals of the US, collectively considered to present a threat to the country’s national interests. It sets out four ‘vital national interests’, which are not fundamentally new ( ibid .: 3): 1) the protection of the American people and their way of life; 2) the promotion of economic prosperity and America’s technological leadership; 3) the preservation through force of world peace; 4) the expansion of the global influence of the US. The strategy then identifies the threats to American

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector

of their methods into their work practices. Humanitarian History and Policy The impetus for this project came from a growing interest in history within the aid industry. The humanitarian sector’s engagement with its past has expanded significantly since the beginning of the twenty-first century, typified by the Overseas Development Institute’s five-year ‘Global History of Modern Humanitarian Action’ project (2011–15), Médecins sans Frontières’ Speaking Out initiative ( Médecins sans Frontières, n.d. ), its recently released associative history ( Médecins sans

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

rarely profitable, and so it is neglected by the commercial news market. This means it is vital that citizens, foundations, philanthropists and public-service outlets value and support this work ( Scott et al ., 2018 ). The third priority is media literacy. We need audiences to know how to distinguish sources that are trustworthy from those that are not. Education strategies will play a crucial role in the global response to disinformation. Legislators in California are currently considering a bill that would embed more media literacy into the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement

Introduction During the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic, an estimated US$ 10 billion was spent to contain the disease in the region and globally. The response brought together multilateral agencies, bilateral partnerships, private enterprises and foundations, local governments and communities. Social mobilisation efforts were pivotal components of the response architecture ( Gillespie et al. , 2016 ; Laverack and Manoncourt, 2015 ; Oxfam International, 2015 ). They relied on grassroots community actors, classic figures of humanitarian work or development

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

population in contexts of armed conflict is evident in the range of policy statements, handbooks and guidelines ( Global Protection Cluster Working Group, 2010 ; ICRC, 2008 ; InterAction, 2006 ; O’Callaghan and Pantuliano, 2007 ; Oxfam, 2005 ; Paul, 1999 ; Slim and Bonwick, 2005 ). Institutional staff-security policies also began to appear in the 1990s ( Cutts and Dingle, 1995 ; ICRC, 1999 ). In 2000, the Humanitarian Practice Network published a Good Practice Review on Operational Security in Violent Environments (hereafter, GPR). Concerned not only with the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

: Presses Universitaires de Rennes ) p. 21 . Favez , J. C. ( 1999 ), The Red Cross and the Holocaust ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ). Hutchinson , J. F. ( 1996 ), Champions of Charity, War and the Rise of the Red Cross ( Oxford : Westview Press ). Judt , T. ( 2008 ), Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century ( London : William Heinemann ). Kaldor , M. ( 1999 ), New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era ( Redwood City, CA : Stanford University Press ). Keller , J. ( 2018 ), ‘The Tactical Case for the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

Is Trying to Reduce the Number of Palestinian Refugees, Here’s Why it Won’t Work ’, Mondoweiss , 24 September , https://mondoweiss.net/2018/09/administration-trying-palestinian-refugees/ (accessed 2 October 2018 ). Bachner , M. ( 2018 ), ‘ Leaders of Global Aid Groups Urge US to Reverse Fund Cuts to UNRWA ’, Times of Israel , 25 01 , www.timesofisrael.com/leaders-of-global-aid-groups-urge-us-to-reverse-fund-cuts-to-unrwa/ (accessed 12 September 2018 ). Barney , I. ( 2003

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

and Leer, violence associated with the dynamics of offensives extended to the hospitals run or supported by the Dutch section of MSF (MSF-Holland, hereafter MSF-H). What motivated these specific acts of violence? And what were the effects of these attacks on the provision of healthcare in the area? Concerns expressed over the last decade by medical aid organisations and public health institutions regarding attacks on health facilities and personnel have generated a growing demand for multi-country or global quantitative studies on the issue. In contrast, efforts to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Global Public and Its Problems

This book argues that John Dewey should be read as a philosopher of globalization rather than as a 'local' American philosopher. Although Dewey's political philosophy was rooted in late nineteenth and early twentieth century America, it was more importantly about the role of America in a globalized world. The book highlights how Dewey's defence of democracy in the context of what he denotes as the Great Society leads him to confront the problems of globalization and global democracy. Then, it explores how Dewey's conception of creative democracy had global connotations. The book examines how Dewey problematized his own conception of democracy through arguing that the public within modern nation states was 'eclipsed' under the regime he called 'bourgeois democracy'. Then, it shifts the terrain of Dewey's global focus to ideas of global justice and equality. The book demonstrates that Dewey's idea of global democracy was linked with an idea of global equality, which would secure social intelligence on a global scale. It outlines the key Deweyan lessons about the problem of global democracy. The book shows how Dewey sets out an evolutionary form of global and national democracy in his work. Finally, it also outlines how Dewey believed liberal capitalism was unable to support social intelligence and needed replacing with a form of democratic socialism.

Open Access (free)
Sport, globalization and the environment

Golf is a major global industry. It is played by more than 60 million people worldwide, and there are more than 32 000 courses in 140 countries across the globe. Golf is a sport that has traditionally appealed to the wealthy and powerful in particular, though it attracts players and spectators from a wide range of demographics. Golf has also received criticism regarding its impact on the environment, particularly when it comes to the appropriation of land for golf course development and the use of water and pesticides in course management. The golf industry has, over time, responded to these and other concerns by stressing its capacity for recognizing and dealing with environmental problems. Yet there are reasons to be sceptical about the golf industry's environmental leadership – and, indeed, to be sceptical about corporate environmentalism in general. This book looks at the power relationships in and around golf, examining whether the industry has demonstrated such leadership on environmental matters that it should be trusted to make weighty decisions that have implications for public and environmental health. This is the first comprehensive study of the varying responses to golf-related environmental issues. It is based on extensive empirical work, including research into historical materials and interviews with stakeholders in golf such as course superintendents, protesters, and health professionals. The authors examine golf as a sport and as a global industry, drawing on and contributing to literatures pertaining to environmental sociology, global social movements, institutional change, corporate environmentalism and the sociology of sport.