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Defining the nation differently
Elleke Boehmer

widow and a wife, is offered as a protest against communalism, what does this say about women’s revised relationship with the secularist, formerly hegemonic nation? In Difficult Daughters, set during the years preceding Partition in the cities of Amritsar and Lahore, Kapur movingly evokes the multiple frustrations encountered by the central character Virmati in her efforts to educate herself and establish a domestic space she can call home. Struggling to integrate her aspirations for learning (initially identified as a masculine terrain) and her desire for a love match

in Stories of women
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

’t protect her from the late shock, which she gets ‘in the face’, of the ‘beacon’ of Edward’s love for Nancy, it shows her that Dowell is a man who will willingly remain outside her bedroom door (pp. 76–7). The narrative levels thus expand, fragmented and differentiated, as are the characters, by sight or its lack in these instances, and Ford articulates the presence of that which is awful, incompletely. Perhaps he wants the reader to see selfinflicted horrors in Leonora’s face, to guess at others, but perhaps he also simply wants him or her to wait, with Dowell, in that

in Fragmenting modernism
Martine Pelletier

the two sisters face anonymity, hard work, homelessness and death in destitution, away from the familial love and solidarity that had made their hard lives bearable, a familiar Friel motif. While Gerry, Chris’s lover and father to Michael, seems able to commute between Ireland and Wales, where he has another family (as Michael will discover much later), Agnes and Rose’s departure proves final. While London comes to mean erasure and death, and Wales is equated with betrayal, Africa is endowed by Jack with life-affirming possibilities, thanks to its continued link

in Irish literature since 1990
An examination of touching moments in dance of court and courtship
Darren Royston

treatise The Book of the Governor, written in 1531 and dedicated to King Henry VIII. An entire chapter is devoted to putting forward arguments to support the inclusion of dance in the humanist education of noble men, from the age of seven until 20. Even though Elyot mentions those who have attacked dancing, such as Saint Augustine who criticized the connection of dance to paganism and saw it as part of the worship of gods such as Venus and Bacchus, he argues that it is the ‘interlaced ditties of wanton love or ribaldry’ accompanying such dancing which should be avoided

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Divine destruction in Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay
Chloe Porter

’s Fedele and Fortunio , image-breaking is shown onstage, as Victoria, her servant Allia and the witch Medusa, disguised as ‘Nunnes’, burn and ‘prick’ a ‘waxen Image’, which has also been inscribed with Victoria’s name, and the names of spirits, as part of a love spell. 11 This act of ritualised image-breaking significantly recalls instances in which images of Elizabeth I were dissolved in corrosive

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
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Jane Eyre in Elizabeth Stoddard’s New England
Anne-Marie Ford

for publication in the American journal the Atlantic Monthly, and had sent her a letter advising her on ways in which he felt she could improve her writing style. Her response, commenting on the love games between Charlotte Brontë’s heroine and hero, reflects the interest in sexuality evident in her own writing, as well as her admiration for Brontë, whose work seems to have influenced Stoddard rather more than Lowell’s advice. He detected in her writing, he said, a tendency to move ‘towards the edge of things’,2 and warned her against it. But Stoddard was captivated

in Special relationships
Open Access (free)
Farah Karim-Cooper

conflict, vulnerable to deception and held hostage to the emotions. Aurélie Griffin shows in her contribution, for instance, how this is noted by early modern writers who were concerned about the effects of love melancholy upon the eyes. Griffin also highlights an important point that medievalists tend to pay more attention to than those of us working with later texts, and that is the notion that there are five external and three internal senses. As scholars of early modern texts, we need to be aware of the ways in which sensory theory changed or evolved from one epoch

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Howard Caygill

sea and the promise of adventure that it seemed to offer. Alexandria is for him the port between past and future, death and life, hovering like a mirage between them both. The poems of L’Allegria speak of the city from the standpoint of both the desert and the sea, from the standpoint of death and fear of loss and of desire and love for the future, not that these are strictly separable in Alexandria. In his prose commentary on ‘Eternity’ Ungaretti describes this ambiguity in terms of the nothing that is death and the desire of love that is life, but remaining alert

in The new aestheticism
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Personal Shakespeare
Steve Sohmer

understood much more truly than he has been. 1 I hope we now better understand Shakespeare’s best-known, best-loved comedy as a more personal play – and Shakespeare as a more personal writer – than we have imagined. Note

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Open Access (free)
Unearthing the truth in Patrick O’Keeffe’s The Hill Road
Vivian Valvano Lynch

which equally represents a new form of transnational mobility that differs markedly from previous patterns of emigration.11 Kate opens up to the young stranger, Timmy, gradually discovering his kinship to the lost Eoin. The O’Rourkes, Timmy’s family, had told him that Uncle Eoin had left for America and never contacted them again. Kate does not disabuse him, but she does tell him that she and Eoin ‘walked out once or twice’ (p. 179).12 The reader becomes privy, however, to deeper disclosures, that Kate and Eoin had loved each other, but that her family opposed the

in Irish literature since 1990