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globalisation and its being exposed to greater competition from emerging non-European economies. Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the European Union in 1995, increasing its membership to fifteen. Other institutions, such as the Council of Europe, also included more and more members in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and began to form – with NATO, the European Union and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) – a rather complicated European ‘security architecture’. All these organisations were faced with immediate challenges, such as

in Destination Europe
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health in the form of sickness benefits to members too incapacitated for work, and payment for a respectable funeral. Emerging during the eighteenth century as a response to industrialisation, there were an estimated 7,200 friendly societies in 1801 with a membership of 648,000 – about 6 per cent of the population.82 As the century progressed, the significance of friendly societies grew along with their membership. By 1913, an estimated one in six of the British population belonged to a friendly society.83 Throughout the nineteenth century, mining areas had some of the

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
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Bulgaria and Romania, with a possible date of accession set for 2007. It was also decided that an attempt would be made in 2004 to set a date for the start of membership negotiations with Turkey. Thorny questions remained, however, such as how to reform the Common Agricultural Policy and EU finances overall in order to accommodate the many new and less wealthy member states. The Amsterdam Summit, June 1997 The European Union is characterised, strangely enough, by both inertia and capacity for change. Some policies – such as those on agriculture, fisheries and regional

in Destination Europe
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1903. In 1850 the Manchester Oddfellows alone could boast a membership of 500,000 and the organisational form had proved its appeal to women as well as men, with the foundation of over 1,000 femaleonly friendly societies. These figures notwithstanding, friendly society membership has rarely been integrated into the framework of the wider economy of makeshifts. Fees are held to have been too high for the poorest sections of the labour force (and thus Conclusion 267 those most likely to need the economy of makeshifts on a regular basis) to afford, many friendly

in The poor in England 1700–1850

that renders it consistent with the sedentarist thesis that democracy requires a bounded territory and a relatively stable core membership, it would be better simply to drop AAI altogether as a solution to the boundary problem. It is, after all, highly implausible in the canonical form cited in the previous paragraph. Consider an example. The British Chancellor decides to raise consumption taxes to finance rising health care costs. British

in Democratic inclusion
The Women’s National Commission

: history From its creation until 1998 the WNC was a membership organization. It comprised member organizations serviced by civil servants. There were fifty member organizations and thirty-five associate member organizations, and the role of the civil servants was to present to government the views of the members. The Commission itself was composed of ‘fifty women elected or appointed by national organizations with a large and active membership of women’ (Cabinet Office, 1998:3). Member organizations, which included the women’s sections of the major political parties

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?

membership determines the ‘thick’ political conceptions that real people, not the abstractions of liberal theory, carry around with them. As with communitarian and multicultural theory, nationalism emphasises the importance of community membership. Nationalists argue that ties grounded in the justice of institutions, or ties grounded in pragmatic calculation, are not strong enough to bind people to the state. Solidarity that is

in Political concepts
The Indian experience

house is called the Rajya Sabha (States’ Assembly) with 250 members. Representatives are chosen on the basis of first past the post by singlemember constituencies for the lower house and proportional 224 CASE STUDIES representation by state assemblies for the upper. In 1991 women formed 5.2 per cent of the membership of the Lok Sabha and 9.8 per cent of the membership of the Rajya Sabha (Swarup et al., 1994:362). This was lower than the preceding Parliament of 1989. Further, ‘it can be safely presumed that membership of women in [political] parties does not exceed

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?

changed as a result of different treaties and enlargements. These internal changes affected EU relations with Latin America both positively and negatively. On the one hand, the Iberian membership of the EU affected EU policy positively towards Latin America; on the other hand, policy towards Central and Eastern European countries which culminated in the 2004 enlargement negatively affecting EU–Latin America relations. This monograph has analysed the reasons behind the EU’s strategic actions towards Mercosur from 1985. The dependent variable has been the degree of

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Some questions for Rainer Bauböck

distinguished from questions about membership, so that ASC cannot be used tout court as a guide to the allocation of citizenship. Finally, I share many of Bauböck's views about who ought to be granted citizenship in a democratic political community and why. He prefers the language of stakeholdership (ACS) and I prefer the language of social membership in exploring these issues, but in substantive terms our views of what democratic principles entail

in Democratic inclusion