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As Robert Sheldon, the defeated candidate for Manchester Withington, indicated to Labour’s post-1959 election conference, the ‘old methods’ were no longer enough. He reported the establishment of a coffeehouse – an innovation also favoured by the non-aligned Marxist New Left – in the centre of Manchester. The aim was to create an amenable venue for young people of vaguely left-wing sympathies to discuss the issues of the day, as the first step towards Labour membership.14 In charge of the coffee-house was Paul Rose, who was later elected MP for Manchester Blackley

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1

Turkey’s relations with Europe and the EU have covered a multitude of issues, in particular being heavily involved with economic, political, cultural, ethnic, social, religious, secular and excessive national issues, the democratic process and military interventions in that process, human rights, minority rights, immigration and other aspects. Turkish association with Europe was meant to be the epitome of the country’s integration in the Western civilization; membership in the relevant economic and military bodies (NATO, the EU), the chief

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
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Second Chamber. Because of legal technicalities Janmaat remained officially an independent MP. From the moment Janmaat joined, the CD was identified as his party. Most journalists and scholars even (incorrectly) mention him as the founder of the CD. But even though the new party received extensive media coverage during its first years, mainly as a consequence of Janmaat’s reputation, its membership remained well below 100. The party contested its first election in May 1986, trying to defend Janmaat’s seat in the Second Chamber. It used the name Lijst Janmaat

in The ideology of the extreme right
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the US states have some form of direct democracy. Referenda are used in Italy, Denmark, France and New Zealand. Australia has had over fifty referenda. The UK has held referenda on political and constitutional issues in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, but only one throughout the UK (concerning continued membership of the European Union, in 1975). The time for greater direct democracy may have come. People are better

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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The Nairn–Anderson interpretation

original titles as papers, where applicable, they are quoted from the volumes in which Nairn and Anderson later republished them. Second, in The Left Against Europe (Nairn 1973), a short book originally published as a special issue of New Left Review, Nairn assessed what he considered to be the British Left’s inadequate response to the Conservative Government’s application for membership of the Common Market. Aspects of Nairn’s critique of the Labour Party are not original, echoing those associated with other condemnations of ‘Labourism’. Taken together, however, his

in Interpreting the Labour Party
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Class cultures, the trade unions and the Labour Party

grow, especially in heavy industry. The immediate post-war years, up to the severe slump of 1921, complete the cycle of events which saw trades union membership peak at 8.25 million. But in largely ignoring the industrial conflict, political ferment and structural changes of those years, McKibbin has eliminated much from his narrative that bears on class consciousness and socialism – Labour’s dominant rhetoric by 1931 – and robs his narrative of a dynamic that helps to explain this otherwise unlikely ideological development. McKibbin has two further objectives

in Interpreting the Labour Party
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Complementary or incompatible ideals?

identification are possible at all, they are likely to occur only between those who are alike in terms of history, cultural background, or point of view on the world.3 Therefore in practice community can be realised only by excluding some from membership or by repressing difference. Second, Young maintains that those who value community are in the grip of a false ideal of face-to-face relations, conceiving these relations as transparent, unmediated and harmonious. Young argues that face-to-face relations cannot be transparent in the way required by ideals of community, for an

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
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In pursuit of influence and legitimacy

2444Ch4 3/12/02 4 2:02 pm Page 92 Finn Laursen Denmark: in pursuit of influence and legitimacy Introduction: a reluctant but serious player Attitudes to European integration in Denmark are very complex. A majority of the Danish people support economic integration in Europe as long as it does not affect Danish autonomy too much. Denmark joined the EEC in 1973 after a referendum in October 1972 where 63.4 per cent of the Danish people supported membership. The SEA was ratified after 56.2 per cent of the Danish people supported it in a referendum on 27

in Fifteen into one?

political transition have a direct bearing upon the life and functioning of the machineries. In some cases this takes the form of reconstituting and reconfiguring the name, size, membership and the site of the national machinery (see also Kwesiga, chapter 10 of this volume). So, for example, in Albania in 1992, the Women and Family Section was set up within the Ministry of Labour, Emigration and Social Affairs. Two years later it was upgraded to the Department of Women and Family and within the next two years it became the State Secretariat of Women attached to the

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
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softened only slightly by the 0.1 per cent won by its main rival the CD. Lier’s successor, former party treasurer Danny Segers, was unable to turn the tables for the rapidly disintegrating party. Since the split the membership of the CP had fallen back to merely 100. Moreover, almost the whole top echelons of the party had either left politics altogether or moved to the CD. The situation became even more devastating as the CP had become involved in a series of court cases as a consequence of its preparation for the local election. A group of people who had signed the CP

in The ideology of the extreme right