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Diplomacy, cross-border patronage, and the negotiation of subsidy alliances in the north-western part of the Holy Roman Empire (late seventeenth century)
Tilman Haug

Geschichte, 3 vols, ed. by Georg Droege (Düsseldorf: Schwann, 1980), vol. 2, pp. 219–365 (pp. 240–265). For the structural proneness to warlike conflict in Europe, see Johannes Burkhardt, ‘Die Friedlosigkeit der Frühen Neuzeit: Grundlegung einer Theorie der Bellizität Europas’, Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 24 (1997), 509–574. Small powers and great designs 189 the Pyrenees in 1659 and gravely affected the territories on the left bank of the Rhine. Other minor, mostly low-intensity, military conflicts in Europe following 1648 included the war between Sweden and

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

followed by the post-war welfare settlement, which brought universal healthcare and finally abolished the individualistic and stigmatising Poor Law. These key details have formed milestones in the extensive literature on British welfare,1 and this narrative of progression can also be seen in the shifting depiction of welfare in coalfields literature across the time period. Broadly speaking, in 106 DIS ABILITY IN INDU S TRIAL BRITAIN the earlier Victorian and Edwardian novels there is a focus on paternalistic interventions by middle- and upper-class protagonists

in Disability in industrial Britain
Open Access (free)
Alannah Tomkins and Steven King

prison of the poor’ in rural England.6 They effectively confined their consideration of urban poverty to the post-1800 period, and then chiefly in the context of mechanised industry and factory establishments: the classic manifestations of the ‘Industrial Revolution’.7 Alternative sources of assistance for the poor were addressed largely as free-standing exercises, giving rise to separate, parallel strands of enquiry relating to very poor, disadvantaged or marginal people. Jordan’s attempt to evaluate the contribution of endowed charity endeavoured to grasp the issue

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Open Access (free)
Common right, parish relief and endowed charity in a forest economy, c. 1600–1800
Steve Hindle

means to relieve themselves, there being little work to set them on, but by flocks go roving up and down the forest, parks and inclosed grounds near unto them to the great hindrance of all who have cattle and woods’.46 For the poor migrant to the forest, therefore, custom came to be regarded not as cohesive but rather as a restrictive ideology, one of the structural constraints within, and around, which survival tactics were perforce developed. What is especially striking about this complex economic equilibrium is the sheer endurance of the forest itself. Despite a

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Open Access (free)
Omnibus literature and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris
Masha Belenky

standing of various Parisian types and to render legible and transparent the urban spaces they inhabited. This imperative to establish transparency stemmed not only from a reconfiguration of physical city spaces, increasing circulation of people and vehicles and a dramatic rise in population size in Paris but, even more importantly, from radical shifts in established social structures in post-Revolutionary France. To understand Paris meant to understand French history and society. As Priscilla Ferguson notes, ‘Writers focused so obsessively on the city because it seemed

in Engine of modernity
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

classes. For instance, a physician considering whether patient Alex’s inability to become pregnant is a problem would first need to know whether Alex was male or female and whether they were pre or post menopause. But what other factors do we take into consideration? When, for example, might race matter? Normality is always defined in relation to reference classes – normal function for that age, or sex, or race or species. And how we define and classify people into such groups is inherently value-laden. Moreover, Cooper would argue that reference classes like age

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

human thought was invariably constrained by the cultural categories available in a particular language.4 In its structuralist form, descending from Saussure via Jakobson, Lévi-Strauss and literary structuralism, linguistics examines the relations not only of words, but also of grammatical structures. Noam Chomsky has famously posited an innate human ability to create a ‘generative grammar’ (cohering to a ‘universal grammar’) of which any given individual will be unaware but which enables his or her native-language fluency. A widely read recent adaptation of Chomsky

in The spoken word
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

to redress [the lack of disabled people’s voices], and in doing so give voice to the experience of both disabled men and disabled women’.6 Other work has seen an intensified effort to address the lack of women’s perspectives in disability studies and to integrate feminist theory into an intersectional disability studies.7 Likewise, the interplay between disability and masculinity is an important and emerging question. Like Morris, Tom Shakespeare argues that the structural focus of the social model has obscured personal experiences 142 DIS ABILITY IN INDU S

in Disability in industrial Britain
The economy of makeshifts in the early modern north
Steven King

be understood against the backdrop of slim profit margins in agriculture for most farmers, seasonal working patterns which depressed annualised income, frequent payment of wages in forms other than cash, and demographic uncertainty.9 Such influences on the economic lives of some 70 per cent of the population were to remain in force after 1750 and were augmented by trade-cycle fluctuations, structural unemployment, the vagaries of an increasingly urbanised labour market and increasing levels of sickness amongst the population even as life-expectancy improved. By the

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Coreen Anne McGuire

reasonably hypothesized to affect cardiovascular health’. 9 It is this position that the people living with heart disease overwhelmingly expressed in Shim’s interviews. That is, they ‘understood gender relations as relations of power and experienced their manifestations as embodied sources of distress, grief, regret, and anger that they explicitly constructed as significant risks to their cardiovascular health’. 10 Such power relations intersected with race and class to produce chronic, structural oppressions and stresses that extracted a corporeal cost to health. 11

in Measuring difference, numbering normal