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Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell

in low-paid, menial jobs, contributes more to the individual’s self-esteem than any welfare hand-out, however generous’. 79 In order to reach its employment goals, the SPD relied on a mix of short and long-term initiatives, and of long-established corporatist principles (the ‘Alliance for Jobs’) and supply-side measures. 80 In France the Socialist Party had a crowded policy

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Phil Williams

Chap4 7/4/03 12:39 pm Page 79 Transnational terrorist threats mous. Although backup installations, based on a well-established risk management ethos, provide a high degree of redundancy within the system, there is little or no redundancy of the system. Consequently, a well-coordinated systemic attack could prove profoundly debilitating. The September 11 attack on the Word Trade Center was not designed primarily as an attack on infrastructure, but certainly caused short-term problems for the financial services sector. An attack that specifically targeted the

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Vaccination and the communist state

Polio in Eastern Europe

Dora Vargha

a shared attribute in the Eastern Bloc. As historian Gail Kligman put it, ‘Mobilization and control of the population were of critical strategic importance for the maximization of development potential, and attention to demographic phenomena was essential to securing long-term interests. In order to meet the relatively high labor needs of such economies, reproduction of the labor force became a priority planning item.’ 5

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Conclusions

The Conservatives in crisis

Philip Lynch and Mark Garnett

Conservative core vote by emphasising Europe, asylum and law and order. This phase was also characterised by short-term, populist initiatives and retreats from previously announced positions. Examples of the former included the response to the fuel crisis of September 2000 when Hague 252 Philip Lynch and Mark Garnett announced plans for a three pence per litre cut in petrol duty, albeit after opposition from Portillo,9 and the conviction for murder of Tony Martin, after which Hague said that the Conservatives would amend the law so that it was on the side of those

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Tony Fitzpatrick

interpreted as the refortification of class divisions and the criminalisation of poverty (Bauman, 1998a: 113–22; Short and Kim, 1999: 115–16), expressed most alarmingly in the ghettoisation of rich and poor areas (Body-Gendrot, 2000). Bauman’s account is not without problems (Warde, 1994), especially given his tendency to make sweeping generalisations that fit whatever metaphor he is captivated by at that moment. Even so, he is one of those whose approach is a welcome alternative to those who treat globalisation as a rupture in the historical condition (Giddens, 1991) and

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Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

was now encouraging universities to expand and widen access to higher education, although it intended to pay as little as possible for the increased numbers, and students could only anticipate a decline in the quality of their education. Throughout the decade students struggled with financial problems as the value of the standard maintenance grant wasted away. Year after year the Government announced grant increases which fell short of the general rate of inflation and took no account of rising prices in areas of special interest to students, such as books, bus

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David Coates and Leo Panitch

Labour came to power, to criticise such policy realignments was not to deny that policy modernisation was necessary to win victory after nearly two decades in opposition. What did concern him, however, even before they came to office, was whether, as New Labour deployed ‘the buzzword of “modernization” to good short-term electoral effect . . . any serious project for social change, let alone one that can seriously be called socialist, can be constructed on such a foundation’ (Leys 1996: 26). In keeping with the Milibandian perspective as a whole, he proved correct in

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George Philip

, there was a significant literature on transitions to democracy, with a 202 AREAS good deal of discussion of pacts and the general tactics of democratization. The region as a whole also suffered from a severe economic setback, following the foreign debt crisis of 1982. Even today it has not fully recovered from the resulting problems, with the result that the region’s record of strongly positive growth during 1945–82 was followed by a much more disappointing performance during 1982–2002. Discussions of political economy were inevitably dominated during the 1980s by

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War economy transformation

Current policy options and issues

Series:

Jenny H. Peterson

the war economy might result in immediate, short-term successes, but could lead to long-term problems as the legitimacy of the state is questioned. The use of the military in transformation is further called into question by the fact that in many cases, the militaries are themselves part of the war economy. International military actors are also known to have become entangled in political economies of violence, contributing either directly or indirectly to illicit economic activity, as discussed in forthcoming chapters. This must cause one to question the motivation

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Cas Mudde

ethnic communities. This includes the right to hereditary land, national identity and full sovereignty. (DVU 1993) 6 A lot of these short factual presentations deal with scandals or failures in politics or negative aspects of Jewish businessmen and Israel. chap3 28/5/02 13.31 68 Page 68 Germany With the term ‘hereditary land’ the party refers to the territories to the East of the Oder-Neiße border, including parts of Poland, Russia, Ukraine and the Czech Republic. Though the terminology seems to indicate a clearly ethnic nationalist argument, based on the