forms of violence against the regime. Many militant Islamic groups have followed this strategy. Societal security Societal security 14 can be defined as the ‘protection of the core values of that society, namely, protecting the right to life of its citizens, safeguarding its national values, and ensuring its welfare, or at least satisfaction of the basic

in Redefining security in the Middle East

‘achievements’ of the respective groups ( 2003 : 138–50). His argument that most cultural struggles of minorities are, in fact, about legal equality is only partly convincing, as the example of the blanket prohibition of Islamic headscarves in French or Turkish public schools shows, which – for instance according to a 2004 ruling by European Court of Human Rights in the landmark case of Leyla Şahin v. Turkey

in Recognition and Global Politics
Open Access (free)
Universalism and the Jewish question

different shapes, at different times, in different places. It is like a ghost that haunts how others see Jews and sometimes how Jews see themselves. It interpellates social relations between Jews and non-Jews, Judaism and Christianity, Judaism and Islam, the Jewish nation and other nations, Jewish ideas and other ideas, etc. as if they were conflicts of a metaphysical kind between the abstract forces of inclusive universalism on one side and those of exclusive

in Antisemitism and the left
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A bounded security role in a greater Europe

borders and protect the sacred patrimony from intruders that must be denied access or worse. This is a Cartesian logic turned inside out – I am, therefore you are not. Each affirms its specificity in order to escape the other’s – ‘foreign, different, if not barbarian, fundamentalist or fanatic’ are words that can define both Europe’s worst vision of Islam and Islam’s worst vision of the West.26 In sum, there is little debate where enlargement ends: at the border of the Eurasian countries that Moscow used to control, and across the Mediterranean where individual EU

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)

, simply distribution of attention. Notes 1 Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste (London: Routledge, 1986); Gilles Kepel, The Revenge of God: The Resurgence of Islam, Christianity and Judaism in the Modern World (Cambridge: Polity, 1994). 2

in Cultivating political and public identity

reasons put forward by the British as to why they were unhappy to support the ZMA was that members of the Arab and Indian communities principally claimed its services. This is intriguing. Although the ethnic diversity of Zanzibar had been established over centuries, and was acknowledged by the British in many of their other policies (such as the decision to allow Islamic law to function in tandem with

in Beyond the state
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Everyday trajectories of activism

earlier, his own local organisation had held a recruiting day at which some members of the division had called him ‘an embarrassment being a gay EDL member and said that the EDL should not allow gays’. Declan is as much anti-communist or anti-left as he is anti-Islam and he criticises left-wing groups opposing the EDL for failing to be consistently critical of homophobia ‘wherever they find it’. Due to an implicit hierarchisation of oppression he suggests that the left fails to challenge Islamic teachings which say ‘gays should be taken to a top of a mountain and thrown

in Loud and proud

religious structures, from the late fourteenth century, shaped its migration history in many ways (Sugar 1977 ; Hoare 2007 ; Wachtel 2008 ). Authorities directly settled Anatolian Turkish cavalrymen on conquered land as ‘timariots’ who taxed local peasants and raised troops, while Ottoman trade-routes developed towns like Sarajevo and Thessaloniki into provincial capitals, refuges for many Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. The Ottoman politics of conversion to Islam, necessary for South Slavs and other Catholic/Orthodox Christians seeking bureaucratic

in Race and the Yugoslav region

military actions in the Botlikhskii and Tsumadinskii mountains were in August–September 1999 – the bloody conflicts with the ‘independent Islamic territory’ of the villages of Karamakha and Chabanmakha, and the conflict with the armed Chechen divisions, who penetrated into Novolakskii raion), the course of their development and their results bears witness to the fact that in Dagestani society there are mechanisms at work which have up until now helped prevent the worst. Particularly striking in this respect is the contrast with the political fate of neighbouring Chechnya

in Potentials of disorder

‘minds’ are incapable of reciprocity. 51 He concluded that reciprocity did not arise with Buddhist or Confucian nations, but only with Islamic nations, for their moral code, based on the Koran, prohibits relations of equality and reciprocity. 52 The Scottish James Lorimer, the Edinburgh Professor of the Law of Nature and Nations, though ‘eccentric’ 53 and extreme even by the standards of the age, was highly regarded on the Continent and within the

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century