countries in the Middle East and the Maghreb may be quite profound, especially as regards attitudes towards EU enlargement or the role of the Union in the Arab–Israeli peace process. Third, the EU’s political identity and its role conceptions are highly contested, given the different national foreign and security policy traditions of its member states, and the EU’s relatively short history as a foreign policy

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

thousand Christian Maronites without any efforts on the part of the Porte to fulfill its obligations to protect the victims’. 29 But let us see what the specialists of the region have to say. Ottomanists tend to absolve the local Ottoman authorities of any responsibility. The Shaws also claim that the British had sent arms to the Druzes so as to counter French influence with the Maronites. 30 Most Arab and other Middle East specialists attribute

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

powerful, controlling and out to destroy the world can now point in the direction of the Middle East and say: there you are. But for the conspiracy theorists, even the most appalling political and military machinations of Binyamin Netanyahu and the Israel Defence Forces – of Israel itself – are far less important than the creation of what David Aaronovitch, in Voodoo Histories , describes as a new kind of super-Jew: the Zionist

in Antisemitism and the left
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Nursing work and nurses’ space in the Second World War: a gendered construction

transport guns and bombs over vast areas of land and sea far more rapidly than their predecessors could, and with increasingly devastating results. These technologies along with the impulse to use them led the ‘commonplace military requirement [to kill] to new depths’.2 Improvements in land, sea and airborne transport enabled mass mobilisation of forces into hostile environments such as the deserts of the Middle East and North Africa and the jungles of South-­East Asia. Battles that were waged so far from Britain needed men, and even with ever more sophisticated modes of

in Negotiating nursing
Autopilot, neglect or worse?

Introduction Donald Trump’s 2016 election threatened a revolution in US Asia policy. Since the early years of the Cold War, the United States has been a constant presence in the region’s security setting. 1 American military power has been the pre-eminent force in the region, organised through a series of bilateral alliances and quasi-alliance guarantees. This presence was part of the larger US Cold War grand strategy in which Washington sought to ensure a favourable strategic balance in Western Europe, the Middle East and East Asia. 2 Although the Obama

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
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The state of surprise

elsewhere. The conflicts in the Middle East, the terrorist attacks on the USA on 11 September 2001 and the subsequent protracted wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the rise of China: these have been the major themes dominating the Western political and security agenda since 2001. Even during the war in Ukraine, attention to Russia was diluted by the Ebola virus, the civil wars in Syria and Libya and

in The new politics of Russia

and borrowed heavily abroad’. This programme ‘worked well through the first quarter of this year: they were able to pay off more than $1 billion in debt’, but soon they experienced ‘bad luck: disappointing exports, largely because of the recession on the continent; the Middle East crisis and the closure of the Suez Canal; and rising interest rates elsewhere while theirs were going down’. The British ‘began to lose reserves

in A ‘special relationship’?
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Deaths at sea and unidentified bodies in Lesbos

by Kemal Ataturk in 1922: destitute refugees flooded the Aegean islands (Clark 2006). During the Second World War and the Nazi occupation of Greece, Greek citizens crossed the Aegean in an effort to reach Turkish shores and join the resistance forces in the Middle East (primarily Lebanon and Egypt).5 Although during the height of the Cold War refugee flows declined, throughout the 1980s Kurds and leftists persecuted by the military regime in Turkey crossed the Aegean border to seek asylum in Greece and other European countries. More recently, and especially after

in Migrating borders and moving times

compromise on. Without a shift in economic thinking and priorities, a viable compromise over the distribution of water among the riparian states will remain elusive. Management prospects and implications for Eurasian security Water remains a contested and strategic asset for the four countries of the Aral Sea Basin and may become so between China and Kazakhstan in the near future. How far water-related conflict is likely in the future is difficult to gauge. International evidence, particularly from the Middle East, suggests that interstate water-related conflict is the

in Limiting institutions?
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. ● Member states have existing alliances of their own which may cut across European Union interests. Britain, for example, has a close relationship with the USA and Israel and has loyalties to Commonwealth countries. Italy and France have close links with Arab countries in the middle east, while Germany has a special interest in Turkey and the Balkans. ● Some countries, such as Sweden, Ireland and Austria now have traditions of neutrality which may be compromised by a common European foreign policy. ● The simple fact that fifteen countries (more after enlargement

in Understanding British and European political issues