, 258, note 36). Intended to be pejorative, the term was undoubtedly inspired by the philosophers Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno, of the Frankfurt School, who formulated the concept “culture industry” in the 1940s. Horkheimer and Adorno used it about American popularculture with its films, radio, and magazines, which they viewed as solely profit-seeking; according to them, these manifestations of popularculture were standardised, commercial, conformist, and banal, and they manipulated and passivised the masses (Horkheimer & Adorno 1947 (German): 144ff; 2002
Lives: The Stories of the Men, Women And Children Who
Died As A Result Of The Northern Ireland troubles (Edinburgh:
Mainstream Publishing, 2007).
Glenn Patterson, Lapsed Protestant (Dublin: New Island, 2006), p. 88.
Richard Bourke, Peace in Ireland: The War of Ideas (London: Pimlico,
2003), p. 193.
Ibid., p. 3.
Colin Graham, ‘ “Let’s Get Killed”: Culture and Peace in Northern
Ireland’, Wanda Balzano, Anne Mulhall and Moynagh Sullivan (eds), Irish
Postmodernisms and PopularCulture (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2007), p. 180.
Deirdre Madden, One by One in the Darkness (London
have as inspirational trampoline the visual culture of Ye Olde
Junke Shoppe. (p. 211)
Though he went on to write books on Jean Renoir, Alfred
Hitchcock, Georges Franju, Luis Buñuel and King Vidor, who would
now be acknowledged as film artists, Durgnat shared the same enthusiasm
for popularculture and scepticism about the relevance of high
Dietary advice and agency in North America and Britain
to the common cold, according to Pauling, was not a gradual increase in the uptake of vitamin C, but the stabilisation of vitamin C levels through the consumption of megadoses of the vitamin, an approach that echoed Galenic treatment of excess humours with bloodletting, purgatives, emetics and diuretics.
Pauling's argument about vitamin C penetrated popularculture via television, radio, magazines and later the internet. Recommendations of vitamin C in other self-help books
communities was diverse, contemporary images
of the miner in his community tended to divide between two stereotypes. On
the one hand, the miner had long been presented in popularculture as a harddrinking, raucous and irreligious character, spending his wages in merriment.
This was a view cemented in eighteenth-century ballads, such as Newcastle
poet Edward Chicken’s The Collier’s Wedding, originally dating from 1729,
which celebrated a class of people who ‘liv’d drunken, honest, working lives’.15
The image of the carefree, hard-drinking miner, survived into the nineteenth
which objects are remediated by their users and may become resistant to the identities imposed on them by manufacturers, corporations and governments.
Reconfiguration of their sensuous relationship with devices and machines dissolves the illusion of objective necessity and points technology users towards further experimentation and alternative possible uses. This dissolution of technology’s authority in a popularculture of hacking and dabbling is, in Feenberg’s theorisation, a political process. People breaking the rules of technology use has consequences which
accessible to the illiterate, at least as far as literacy is classically defined, but it demands a different kind of literacy within
the codes and conventions of popularculture if it is to make meaningful sense as an extended text rather than a sequence of unconnected fragments in which all one does is move the gunsight and
press the fire button. Half-Life acts to guarantee that the violence
that is at the heart of the game is internally justified as a response
More than a game
to the world of the text, and that the visual allusions
and ‘local’ appropriation of international influences, to Neil Jordan’s
cinematic version of The Butcher Boy (1998), which ‘captures some
of the shock of Ireland’s abrupt baptism into the new global order’ by
showing the cataclysmic impact of modernisation on 1960s Ireland.30
In Alan Parker’s The Commitments, the confident familiarity with
global popularculture provides an escape route, as Dublin’s Northside
identifies with the black underclass in United States, and embraces ‘a
new transatlantic freedom’.31 The absence of the Catholic Church and
indifference to the
their various combinations of human and machine: from Von Kempelen’s
mechanical Turk to C3PO familiar to Star Wars fans since 1977. Negative feelings about technosciences often respond to a sense of disorienting and uncontrollable speed, and yet here robots in science seemed to
lag far behind robots in popularculture. This sense of Myon as outdated
was highlighted in My Square Lady as Myon sat passively amid a stream
of eclectic popular cultural reference points. In the opening scene
referred to above, it was surrounded by the children and adult choirs
The spoken word
Vagabonds and minstrels in sixteenth-century Wales
Vagabonds and minstrels
in sixteenth-century Wales
hroughout much of late medieval and early modern Europe, from
Poland and Russia in the east to Wales and Ireland in the west, itinerant
minstrels entertained noble and plebeian audiences. Wandering entertainers
may well have provided (as Burke has suggested) one of the unifying elements
within European popularculture. A pan-European tradition of minstrelsy,
crossing social and cultural boundaries, is an