Impact of structural tensions and thresholds

governing consultative status’. 84 Only eight governments responded to the invitation, four of which (Britain, Sweden, the Netherlands and West Germany) defended and praised the role of NGOs, while two (Argentina and Syria) were bitterly critical. 85 The creation of the Working Group on Forced or Involuntary Disappearances was largely motivated by the detailed NGO reports in relation to Chile and Argentina

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace

so well worth fighting for. Moreover, water scarcity issues inevitably become co-mingled with other factors and so may play a significant role in heightening tensions among feuding parties. Some of the most enduring conflicts in the international arena, including the Arab–Israeli conflict, the India–Pakistan dispute and the Syrian–Turkish conflict, to name only a few, have all involved serious

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Open Access (free)

characterise discourses and practices constituting the military-humanitarian governance of migration are addressed with an analysis of media representations and campaigns concerned with the loss of life as well as those targeting would-be migrants. In chapter 8 , ‘The Role of Aid Agencies in the Media Portrayal of Children in Za’atari Refugee Camp’, Toby Fricker charts the evolution of media coverage of young Syrian refugees in Jordan and

in Global humanitarianism and media culture

USA, has refused to recognize the independence of a number of political regimes and through both open and covert violence has set out to destroy their independence. One example is the USA's war against Vietnam in the 1960s and 1970s. Another is the USA's war against and occupation of Iraq (2003-) and, even more provocatively, against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS

in Recognition and Global Politics

reform, democracy promotion, civil society capacitybuilding, demobilisation (DDR(RR)) and SSR. MONUC helped to maintain the integrity of the DRC and was a major actor behind the democratic elections of 2006. MONUC/MONUSCO has been, in many instances, the sole guardian of peace and security in parts of the Kivus. However, its impact remains limited. The graphs in figures 3.1–3.4 illustrate how the DRC ranks highly on the list of UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) deployments in terms of Western Sahara Syria Republic of South Sudan Middle East Uniformed

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making

’: 141 but of Mahometanism compounded with the peculiar character of race. They [the ‘Turks’] are not like the mild Mahometans of India, nor the chivalrous Saladins of Syria, nor the cultured Moors of Spain. They were, upon the whole, from the black day when they first entered Europe, the one great anti-human specimen of humanity. Wherever they went, a broad line of blood marked the track behind them, and, as

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century

). 6 Did this title symbolically cast satellites like East Germany as ‘sons’ of Soviet Russia? 7 Afghanistan, Burma, Cambodia, Ceylon, the People's Republic of China, Cyprus, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Gold Coast (soon to become Ghana), India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Jordan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Thailand, Turkey

in Race and the Yugoslav region
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Postcolonial women writers in a transnational frame

which lies outside convention (GST 3, 44). ‘India’s a Free Country’, says her twin Estha with unconscious irony just before they set out on their fateful journey across the Meenachal River that will lead to their cousin’s drowning and their mother’s disgrace: it is the twins’ single direct reference to the country they live in (GST 197).30 The small circle of the novel’s Syrian Christian family (self-enclosed like the surrounding community), with its Plymouth car and ‘tangerine’ radio, its bourgeois privileges and international economic and educational contacts, is

in Stories of women

to the old regime. The destruction two years earlier by the Taleban regime in Afghanistan of the 1500-year-old statues of the Buddha in the Bamiyan valley and of a Palmyra temple by Isis in Syria in 2015 were accorded similar status by the image breakers, acts which both symbolised and constituted the Islamic orthodoxy of the country and the removal of anything which contributed to an alternative and hence hostile human life. Statues and monuments have always been vulnerable to the ambitions of those who want to establish or consolidate new orders, though not

in Cultivating political and public identity

, that practical sovereignty was at one time reduced to a few Beirut city blocks while the rest of the country was in the hands of militias and, later, Israeli and Syrian armed forces. Similar problems have been seen in Somalia, Bosnia, Sierra Leone and Afghanistan. Challenges to state sovereignty Now nearly four hundred years old, the ‘Westphalian state’, with sovereignty as its defining characteristic, may

in Understanding political ideas and movements