peoples that were
the victim of colonialism and under-development. The US government
turned increasingly to academic specialists in the social sciences, including anthropologists, economists and social psychologists, to study the
threat and through the 1950s and 1960s they produced an influential
model of intervention often referred to as Political Development Theory
(PDT).4 The model regarded Third World countries as highly vulnerable
to insurgency, according to the adage ‘poverty breeds discontent’, and
the role of the US and ‘west’ should be to provide a degree of
-up priority setting is
not a minor but a fundamental problem for the ex-colonial world. Most of the
South is already caught in a tangle of northern economic investments,
disinvestments, bi- and multi-lateral demands, controls, requirements, promises
and threats that many have called neo-colonialism. The fact that global
immunisation programmes are humanitarian in their aim rather than directly
exploitive does not prevent their strongly destructive
it the prospect of
emancipation from colonialism. As Jarrett-Macauley states:
She was invited to broadcast morale-boosting
talks on West Indians and the war effort: ‘The empire at
war and the colonies’ went out on 1 April 1940 and
‘West Indians’ part in war’ later that month.
She ended one broadcast: ‘I am
47 TNA, CO 927/88/6.
48 TNA, CO 847/36/4.
49 Lee and Petter, The Colonial Office, War and Development Policy , p. 171; Havinden and Meredith, Colonialism and Development , pp. 204–205; S. Clarke, “A technocratic imperial state? The Colonial Office and scientific research, 1940–1960”, Twentieth Century British History 18(4) (2007), 453–480.
50 TNA, CO 852/588/2; Lee and Petter, The Colonial Office, War and Development Policy , pp. 171–172.
51 M. Worboys, “The
Second World War: a career in the making”, Canadian Journal of History 16 (1981), 68–85.
10 TNA, CO 852/588/2.
13 C. Whitham, Bitter Rehearsal: British and American Planning for a Post-War West Indies (Westport: Praeger, 2002), p. 38; C. Fraser, Ambivalent Anti-Colonialism: The United States and the Genesis of West Indian Independence, 1940–1964 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994), pp. 59 and 64.
so as to be
able to opt eventually as the winning side became evident.
1 This is a wider theoretical issue addressed constantly by historians of colonialism, ethnographers and ‘subaltern studies’: on Algerian women specifically see ‘Decolonizing Feminism’ in Lazreg, Eloquence, 6–19.
2 The only attempt to analyse the geographical variations in female militancy
is Djamila Amrane, ‘Répartition géographique des militantes de la guerre de
libération nationale (Algérie, 1954–1962)’, AWAL, 8 (1991), 1–19.
M1822 - MACMASTER TEXT.indd 234
The intellectual influence of non-medical research on policy and practice in the Colonial Medical Service in Tanganyika and Uganda
cultural and moral transformation associated with colonialism,
capitalism and Christianity. Controlling such diseases required an
intimacy of knowledge of Africans’ domestic and private lives
that was considered unnecessary in relation to conditions such as
malaria or measles. Acquiring such a depth of understanding of local
attitudes and behaviours in Buganda did not require the kind of intense,
neither much tainted by its conditions of production nor transformed
by the pragmatics of colonial encounters and struggles’
(Nicholas Thomas, Colonialism’s Culture. Anthropology,
Travel and Government , London, Polity Press, 1994, p.
Thomas Beames, The Rookeries of London. Past
Better ‘the Hottentot at the hustings’ than ‘the Hottentot in the wilds with his gun on his shoulder’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain
parliament made it more difficult for tribal Africans to register, and
not until 1892 that it raised the qualification substantially, with a
view to excluding or limiting African voters in the eastern Cape. The
last of the Cape frontier wars ended in 1881; with it ended any serious
possibility of Indigenes in the Cape defeating White colonialism by
military means, and the defeated Xhosa were incorporated into the
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika
R.M. Titmuss, The Health Services of
Tanganyika: A Report to the Government , London, Pitman
Medical Publishing Co., 1964 , p. 1
M. Turshen, ‘The Impact of Colonialism on
Health and Health Services in Tanzania’, International