Executive versus legislative power
Cameron Ross

institutions. However, it was not long before regional assemblies fought back against executive dominance. Russia’s weak and inchoate form of federalism played into the hands of the regions. Yeltsin (as we showed in chapter 3) in a search to maintain stability and to win the support of regional voters, went out of his way to grant recalcitrant regions and republics special deals and favours. Many of the bilateral treaties allowed the republics and regions to develop their own political systems.17 Articles 72 and 77 of the Russian Constitution also grant republics and regions

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Mandakini Pant

10 PRIA educates the community Mandakini Pant A.  Women Political Empowerment and Leadership (WPEL) Gender is a salient factor in participation and representation in democratic decentralized governance. The Constitutional Amendment Acts (CAAs) enabled 33 per cent representation of women in panchayats and municipalities. While Article 243G and 243W of the Constitution empowered the state legislatures to endow panchayats/municipalities with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government, the provision of

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Geoffrey K. Roberts
Patricia Hogwood

The Countries of Western Europe Austria Population 8.1 million (2000) Capital Vienna Territory 83,857 sq. km GDP per capita US$25,788 (2000) Unemployment 3.7 per cent of workforce (2000) State form Republic. The Austrian constitution of 1920, as amended in 1929, was restored on 1 May 1945. On 15 May 1955, the four Allied Powers signed the

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
One or two ‘honorable cannibals’ in the House?
Julie Evans
Patricia Grimshaw
David Philips
, and
Shurlee Swain

new Constitution which, members declared, challenged the rights of free British subjects. Members queried in particular the right of the imperial Parliament to appropriate money from the colonial revenue derived from land sales. This demand was enshrined in the 1842 Act for Regulating the Sale of Wasteland, which allowed the governor to appropriate a proportion not exceeding 15 per cent for the

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Rousseau’s and nationalism
Mads Qvortrup

overlooked even by Rousseau scholars.3 Nationalism does not feature in the authoritative works on Rousseau’s political philosophy. Rousseau’s writings on nationalism are mainly contained in two treatises (although traces can be found elsewhere); in Projet de Constitution pour la Corse (1764 ) and in Considérations sur la gouvernement du Pologne (1771). In Du Contrat Social Rousseau availed himself for advice on constitutional engineering to nations that were entitled ‘to be taught by some wise man how to preserve freedom’ (III: 391). Two countries requested his services

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
New polity dynamics
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou
Michael J. Tsinisizelis
Stelios Stavridis
, and
Kostas Ifantis

7 Debating the future of Europe New polity dynamics Introduction The principal purpose of this study has been to provide an overview of the important political and institutional developments in the Union and to link such developments with relevant theory discourses; the most prominent of which being the relationship between theory and reform in the evolving political constitution of the Union. As the discussion in Chapter 2 suggested from a normative standpoint, it is possible to accept that the coming into being of the TEU in 1993, assisted by further treaty

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Open Access (free)
The European transformation of the French model
Andrea Szukala

) – the French president is more or less a ‘lame duck’ in European politics. The 1995 reform, one of the major constitutional modifications following Maastricht,29 may be understood as a reaction to this curtailment. The extension of the presidential referendum according to Article 11 of the French Constitution to any bill ‘which deals with reforms relating to the economic and social policy of the nation and to the public services contributing thereto’ is also an attempt to recover power in EMU-related domains.30 Consequently, as a reciprocal gesture, the actual

in Fifteen into one?
Cameron Ross

large-scale, potentially self-conscious cultural communities, most territorial conflicts become community conflicts as well. In the process, feelings of ethnicity are strengthened and new issues take on ethno-territorial significance.5 Federalism can also lead to the creation of new national communities, as was the case in the USSR. By granting ethnic communities virtually all of the trappings of statehood (constitutions, flags, hymns, parliaments, executive bodies, courts etc.), federalism, it is argued, simply provides such communities with the institutional and

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Roger Southall

African countries bereft of institutions (effective political oppositions, a free media, functioning constitutions) capable of countering abuse of power and ensuring administrative accountability. On the other, the centrality of the state to 142 AREAS resource allocation had encouraged a concentration of political power that typically saw personalized regimes ruling by a mix of coercion and clientelism – the granting of rewards and favours to particular supporters irrespective of the laws and regulations concerning public conduct. Democratization in Africa: the

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Thomas Salmon’s Modern History
Ben Dew

the former issue, writers emphasised the support that the culture of borrowing had given to English liberties. As one writer noted, the ‘national Debt was contracted […] for the Preservation of our most excellent Constitution from Popery and Slavery. This encouraged the best Subjects at the Revolution to venture their Lives and Fortunes in maintaining a long and expensive War.’8 In relation to economic matters, Court propagandists maintained that it was financial reforms that had helped to transform England into a wealthy nation. Thus the London Journal argued that

in Commerce, finance and statecraft