are being squandered elsewhere;
you are draining and frittering yourself away. Consolidate your self;
rein your self back. They are cheating you, distracting you, robbing
you of your self. (1991: 1132)
Montaigne suggests the distinguishing characteristic and natural inclination of humanity to be a capacity for self-division or alienation. Also in
keeping with Thomas, Montaigne claims that the process of reunification, of healing of such fragmentation, entails a ‘painful movement’
against such tides. But where Montaigne proves particularly helpful is in
about the swirling abundance of themes and trends in contemporary
Irish fiction and autobiography in the space allotted to me here. Every
tour d’horizon must be hedged about with qualifications and hesitations, every typological gesture thwarted by the fact of thematic and
stylistic diversity.2 In short, the closer one looks for continuities and
correspondences, the more one becomes aware of kaleidoscopic variety.
Indeed, the motifs of fragmentation and incompletion are themselves
among the most recurrent in recent Irish writing, being
bases, treaties) in return for formal independence which, together with irredentist dissatisfaction with borders, invariably tarnished their legitimacy.
For the Arab states, the continued presence of imperial powers in the region, extreme economic dependence and limited military capabilities meant the international system sharply constrained state options. As long as societies were unmobilised, domestic constraints were weaker, yet owing to intra-elite fragmentation and low institutionalisation many regimes were too unstable and narrow-based to
in addition to EU institutions, the member states and the distribution of
powers at national level), if we thus pass from the EU as institutional phenomenon to the macro-institutional reality of European public powers, the
image of fragmentation becomes even more pronounced. The distribution
of power centres – the Council, the Commission, the European Parliament,
the European Central Bank, the twenty-seven national governments and
administrations, the strengthened local administrations and the independent national or European authorities – is such that the overall
, to consider the
complexity of patterns of solidarity, collaboration, fragmentation and dissent.
There seems to be some comfort taken in IPE from the idea that organised
labour may be a ‘voice’ for global civil society. But, in normative terms, is a
single channel or formal voice what is being looked for? Following E. P. Thompson, a unified body of collective consciousness must always be wrought from
something, and will necessarily draw boundaries and exclude practices. The
practices of ‘insider’ workers, of whatever form, will have their ‘outsider’
region’s strategic transit routes, oil resources, the creation of Israel, a Western bridgehead, and the relative power vacuum issuing from regional fragmentation – all continued to draw in external powers.
Leon Carl Brown (1984: 3–5, 16–18) has argued that the Middle East became a penetrated system , one subject to exceptional influence and intervention from the outside but which could not be fully subordinated or absorbed. Fred Halliday (1988) observes that, from the time of the Eastern question, great power competition over the Middle East has
the mother. (Bion, 1967: 103–4)
Again, it is important to stress this is not necessarily a pathological
process, but a fundamental early interaction between an infant and its
mother. Because of the infant’s early sense of fragmentation and powerful fantasy life, there is not necessarily any reasonable failure on the part
of the mother. Thus, Hanna Segal would write:
When an infant has an intolerable anxiety, he deals with it by projecting
it into the mother. The mother’s response is to acknowledge the anxiety
and do whatever is necessary to relieve the infant
). Ultimately, as the conclusion to these two chapters, the fragmentation endemic to modernism (represented in these cases by the war, by
technology and by the contemporary perception of the ‘woman
problem’), involves multiple perspectives that can destroy one’s sense
of one’s world and one’s sense of oneself. But this isn’t always the case.
Regeneration, of the kind that eventually comes to Tietjens, as the end
point of his journey through war, is also in its gift. This chapter traces
the roots of this (often atavistic2) regenerative possibility in Ford, a
-gardism. It also represents the fragmentation and decline of
the avant-garde as a genuinely critical and adversary culture’. 56 Still, for Huyssen, as for his fellow European Calinescu,
this American avant-garde is more modern than postmodern, although he is ready to grant that
it may indeed seem postmodern in an environment with no history of avant-gardes comparable
to Dada or Surrealism: ‘Where Europeans might react with a sense of
déjà-vu, Americans could legitimately sustain a sense of novelty, excitement,
Challenges and technological solutions to the identification of individuals in mass grave scenarios in the modern context
Gillian Fowler and Tim Thompson
study from Roman
era tombs in Greece’, in Adams & Byrd (eds), Recovery, Analysis, and
Identification, pp. 97–122.
Djuric et al., ‘Identification of victims’.
R. Ferllini, R., ‘Forensic anthropological interventions: challenges in the
field and at mortuary’, in Ferllini (ed.), Forensic Archaeology and Human
Rights Violations, pp. 122–47.
A. Mundorff, R. Shaler, E. Bieschke & E. Mar-Cash, ‘Marrying anthropology and DNA: essential for solving complex commingling problems
in cases of extreme fragmentation’, in Adams & Byrd (eds), Recovery,