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The state of surprise

social science based approach gained greater traction, as many in the West assumed that Russia was in transition to something better and higher, and the focus of their attention shifted away from studying the roles and relations of senior individuals towards a greater focus on civil society and Russia’s movement towards liberal democracy. 32 This sense of transition, visible in parts of academia, was

in The new politics of Russia
The European Union and social democratic identity

ideological and M1738 - CALLAGHAN TEXT.indd 191 3/8/09 12:13:40 192 Responses to the crisis programmatic change in contemporary social democracy’, in P. Delwit (ed.), Social Democracy in Europe (Brussels: Ed. de L’Université Libre des Bruxelles). Moschonas, G. (2007) ‘Party of European Socialists’, in Y. Deloye and M. Bruter (eds), Encyclopedia of European Elections (Durham, NC: Palgrave Macmillan). Notermans, T. (ed.) (2001) Social Democracy and Monetary Union (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books). Pappas, T. (2006) ‘Political charisma and liberal democracy’, paper

in In search of social democracy
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individual states and NGOs, will be more long term. International peace building is a liberal endeavour. In general, and certainly in East Timor’s case, it involves the effort to reconstruct the state as a liberal market democracy. This is in part because liberal models of representative democracy and market capitalism are widely assumed to be conducive to the management of conflict and so to peace (the ‘democratic peace’ argument). Liberal democracy enshrines notions of rights, and respect for rights reasonably enough appears as the antidote to the systematic infliction

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
New polity dynamics

, amendments to national constitutions, basic laws or parliamentary statutes, for any well-thought-out and at the same time consequential debate on European democracy to come full circle – assuming of course that such a democracy will not go through all the developmental stages of Western liberal democracy – such proposals should be part of the discursive agenda on the constitutional (or other) future(s) of Europe, the member states and, crucially, the candidate countries. Such normative commitments at instituting a multilevel civic space within which the constituent publics

in Theory and reform in the European Union

the HDZ, the different wings of the MUP_Bellamy_05_Ch4 80 9/3/03, 9:27 C   81 party were reconciled by their president, Dra¥en Budi°a.101 The first HSLS programmes focused on the economy, privatisation and wealth creation.102 Its core principles were those of classical liberalism. The HSLS argued that, ‘free is the community in which every individual is free and socially secure’.103 Its vision for Croatia was one of liberal democracy, social cohesion, the inalienable rights of the individual, the limitation of government, the principle of

in The formation of Croatian national identity
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secular, liberal democracy with a free market economy has little applicability to the Caucasus or Central Asian republics. As was shown by Gareth Winrow, high budget deficits, rising foreign debts, poor taxation systems, strongman rule, lack of free, open, and competitive elections, censorship, bureaucratic inertia, corruption, nepotism, local disputes, etc., all impair democratization, hinder the development of economic and political reforms, in short reducing to the minimum the chances of success of the so-called Turkish model. Neither language affinity eased the

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

involving territorial expansion and military strength; and hostility to liberal democracy as a political system based on divisive pluralism and effete tolerance of views and interests hostile to the nation or race. Fascism also often includes acceptance of ideological pronouncements, especially from the leader, as scientifically irrefutable. However, the variations found in Nazi Germany, Franco’s Spain and Mussolini’s Italy, as

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
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Minister of this coalition government (called the ‘Freedom Pole’) in 1994 he broke with standard conventions of liberal democracy. The coalition terminated through inter-party disagreements at the end of 1994, and Berlusconi became leader of the opposition. In 1996 he was charged with fraud, bribery of tax officials and illegal party financing and in 1998 was sentenced to over five years’ imprisonment for these offences. On 9 May

in The politics today companion to West European Politics