nineteenth century, and by the tendency
of literary works to aestheticise and idealise bourgeois life.
By the late nineteenth century, this Romantic image of genius began
to transform, despite much resistance from parts of the German public.
For over two decades from the late 1890s onwards – roughly until the
First World War – psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and the reading public
were particularly captivated by the mentalhealth and sex life of German
creative writers, artists and intellectuals. For the sake of simplicity, all
such individuals are throughout this chapter
NCDs listed in 1998 were (WHO 1998a: 14):
• cardiovascular diseases;
• chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
• musculoskeletal conditions (such as arthritis and osteoporosis);
• mentalhealth conditions (mostly dementia and depression);
• blindness and visual impairment.
In 2002 the WHO again reported that NCDs may be significant and costly
causes of disability and reduced quality of life (WHO 2002a: 34), and can
be expensive to treat and long-lasting (WHO 2002b).
More recent research, however, amends the picture
leaders’.68 In regional
and national meetings and its dedicated journal Contact, the IRM
encouraged collaboration between doctors and clergymen on subjects such as ‘decisions about life and death, the care of the dying,
the role of religion in mentalhealth, abortion, medical education,
casework and counselling, ethical decision-making, counselling the
bereaved, groups and teams in medicine and ministry’.69
Ramsey was also involved with the London Medical Group
(LMG), which was one of the most significant examples of ‘doctor
The making of British bioethics
leaflets that could be put through letterboxes locally.
Lisa does not work due to long-term mentalhealth issues. She lives with her
partner who encouraged her to join the EDL to ‘channel the anger’ that she was
experiencing but whose own job in the public sector prevented her having any
personal association with the movement.
Paths into the EDL
Explanations of receptivity to far right extremism at the individual level have
sought to identify vulnerable personality ‘types’. Theories of a fascist personality
type, first found in the work of Reich and Fromm and
mentalhealth problems. The creation of the NHS and post-war welfare state brought political attention to these populations, just as new techniques for assessing mortality and morbidity drew medical interest to long-term conditions of the middle-aged. 5 Although government departments were absorbed with how the health and social services could care for ‘the chronic sick’ during the 1950s and early 1960s, epidemiologists, public health agencies, clinicians, laboratory researchers, and social medicine academics all began to consider the problems posed by ‘chronic
Eileen Martin, Emma McKenna, Henk Mulder, and Norbert Steinhaus
questions (such as, for example, the issue of local air quality) were the
key elements of this EC call. The call was widely publicized by the network and a
total of twenty-seven eligible applications were received, indicating the strength
and diversity of the science shop movement, with four projects eventually being
funded. These dealt with health effects of noise from wind turbines; cycling and
air pollution; optimizing public transport for the elderly; and mentalhealth care
for immigrant communities. Even where these applications were unsuccessful,
hope of mentalhealth, not just in the mind’s spectacular resources, nor in the inﬁnite possibilities of narrative, but in the
process of transformation between the two. Lambrichs’s work urges us to
consider the alchemy of metamorphosis that takes place between inner and
outer worlds, between experience and its internalisation, and between
diﬀering forms of symbolic representation, to discover to what extent we
can truly possess our many lives.
Louise L. Lambrichs, Journal d’Hannah (Paris: La Diﬀérence, ); A ton image
(Paris: Olivier/Seuil, ). All
of enforced sterilisation that have affected potentially hundreds of
thousands of people due to their race, ethnicity, gender or mentalhealth status. However, in public perceptions of evolutionary science
these societal issues clearly do (rightly) count, and will most likely
4 See www.independent.co.uk/news/science/fury-at-dna-pioneers-theory-africans-areless-intelligent-than-westerners-394898.html.
Re-examining ‘creationist’ monsters
for some individuals, groups or communities play a role in the way
in which people might perceive evolutionary
Interestingly, whilst social scientists are more receptive to the idea that radical
change occurs during periods of rising expectations rather than increased immiseration, there is still largely a failure to acknowledge the possibility of fluctuating states of mentalhealth and psychological preparedness to instigate social
change on a micro-sociological level.
All of these factors need to be considered in the light of the vast differences
that exist within communities. Indeed, understanding the socio-psychological
identity of a community is an
destabilised by the way knowledge
is unequally dispersed globally across diasporas and within multicultural cities. This section explores a project that also involved a collaborative theatrical re-problematisation where the development of biosocial
alliances was made difficult by significant social, linguistic and cultural
barriers that intersected with and to some extent correlated with different
ways of knowing.
Khat Out of Sight Out of Mind, a project developed in 2006, attempted
to build networks around the hot issue of khat-chewing and mentalhealth within the East