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Cultural and political change in 1960s Britain

collaborators anticipated this emphasis when they outlined how far parties can shape, rather than react to, voter attitudes.127 Yet, if parties enjoyed more freedom to influence electors than has been previously assumed, this autonomy was only relative, as none could react to events in a purely ‘pragmatic’ manner. Thus, in his study of European social democracy, Herbert Kitschelt noted how far a party’s ideological tradition could influence what members took to be ‘acceptable arguments and ideas’ and so restrict how they might respond to change.128 Few argue that Labour was

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
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since 1945 (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1993), and Keohane, Security in British Politics, 1945–99 (London: Macmillan, 2000). David Howell, British Social Democracy: A Study in Development and Decay (London: Croom Helm, 1976), pp. 144–9 and 267–74. Michael Gordon, Conflict and Consensus in Labour’s Foreign Policy 1914–1965 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1969); Kenneth Miller, Socialism and Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice in Britain to 1931 (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1967); John Naylor, Labour’s International Policy: The Labour Party in the

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
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, while social democracy claims that needs will vary in accordance with the available resources and the existing standards of need in a society. In Western societies this element of justice is identified with the equality of basic needs fulfilled by welfare states. Other thinkers base claims for social justice on different criteria. Jeremy Bentham and the Utilitarians, for example, claimed that social justice was associated with

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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responsibility for their own fate: this underscores the need to create a favourable climate for wealth creation, not simply emphasizing distribution. To Giddens, this points the way to a ‘third way’ distinct from statist social democracy and neoliberalism, a new path most closely associated with the Democratic Party in the US and Britain’s New Labour. He argues that the ‘third way’ is not just about a concern with economic development, but also with community issues, and stresses the vital importance of social solidarity and basic social institutions like the family. Right

in Democratization through the looking-glass

nationally specific, but similar phenomena could be observed in comparable countries such as Italy (where the entire post-war party system collapsed under the weight of political corruption), Germany (where the ‘new politics’ prospered on the failure of traditional social democracy) and Britain (where the electoral swing of 1997 broke all post-war records). To achieve a just measure of the balance between party stress and party stability, we can learn from longitudinal historical and cross-national 26 The French party system comparison. Longitudinal comparison suggests

in The French party system

Discontinuities (London: Longman, 2001), 246–272. 22 Donald Niewyk, Socialist, Anti-Semite and Jew: German Social Democracy Confronts the Problem of Anti-Semitism, 1918–1933 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State, 1971). 23 David Bankier, ‘German Social Democrats and the Jewish Question’ in David Bankier (ed.), Probing the Depths of German Anti

in Antisemitism and the left

increasing number of younger revisionists who were unhappy with their government’s apparent lack of interest in redistributing power from Whitehall. As one of that number, David Marquand, later claimed, they questioned the assumption ‘that outcome was all and process irrelevant’, and began to consider that social democracy should be about political as much as economic and social equality.2 Thus, Mackintosh believed ministers were captive to a Fabian tradition committed to the ‘conviction that welleducated well-disposed people’ working in London were ‘more likely to be

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1

rule of litigious companies and captured regulators. Note that Norway practises an advanced form of Scandinavian social democracy, supported by strong and independent bureaucracy and government, a social compact between companies and society, and economic growth fuelled by North Sea oil wealth. It is an atypical example. Netherlands and Slovenia 2012 In mid-June 2011 the

in Network neutrality

’, Critical Social Policy , 18:55 (1998), pp. 217–29. 28 A. Giddens, The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy (Cambridge, Polity Press, 1998), pp. 102–3. 29 Giddens, The Third Way , p. 104. 30 Giddens, The Third Way , p. 101

in Political concepts
A managerial perspective

uncertainty’ and are reflexively managed, 25 in the sense that every action is undertaken in the light of some knowledge concerning its consequences. While Giddens embraces socialist values of solidarity, community and social responsibility, he believes that the changes wrought by globalisation render the centralised socialist state redundant. He characterises post-war social democracy

in The Third Way and beyond