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chap 9 27/5/03 11:57 am Page 289 9 Elections in the Länder Introduction Five phases can be distinguished in the development of political parties in the Länder. The first phase, from 1945 to 1953, was the period during which older parties were reestablished, e.g., SPD, and new parties were founded, e.g., the refugee party (BHE), CDU, and FDP (although the CDU has its roots in the old Center Party [Zentrum] and the FDP could be traced back to liberal parties of the Empire and Weimar Republic). The second phase, from 1953 to 1969, saw the developing

in The Länder and German federalism
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Invisibility and erasure in The Two Merry Milkmaids

, the legend of Gyges was a well-known classical myth in the early modern period which spoke directly to Reformation anxieties about the reliability of external appearances. 41 The legend of Gyges is told in Book 2 of Plato’s Republic and Cicero’s De Officiis. In The Republic , Glaucon explains that Gyges: was a shepherd in the service of the Lydian

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
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Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies

. A series of laws passed between 1988 and 1990, referred to as the Markovic laws, were meant to govern the process of privatisation in Yugoslavia. The process was stalled, however, by the outbreak of war in Yugoslavia’s former republics. Following the wars, the newly independent states of the former Yugoslavia created and followed their own laws and processes for privatisation (Ristic´, 2005). The Serbian state continued to administer the process of privatisation in Kosovo up until 1999 in what is now widely considered an illegitimate, if not illegal, manner. Many

in Building a peace economy?
Why China survived the financial crisis

The Asian financial crisis 5 The domino that did not fall: why China survived the financial crisis When the financial crisis unexpectedly hit the high-performing East and Southeast Asian economies in mid-1997, it was widely believed that the People’s Republic of China (PRC) would be the next domino to fall. China’s extensive intra-regional trade and investment linkages with the rest of Asia, and the fact that the Chinese economy suffers from many of the same debilitating structural problems that long plagued (and ultimately did incalculable damage) to the

in The Asian financial crisis
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Putting the countryside back to work

Montreuil to Corbigny exemplified early Fifth Republic decentralization efforts and the scenario of development. Following the 4 July 1961 cornerstone ceremony with which construction began on the Photosacs factory, a reporter for the Journal du Centre observed, ‘For years Corbigny hoped for “its” factory: for years it was evident in conversation the intense desire of the population to see established in Corbigny a factory, a source of jobs and revenue to confirm Corbigny’s vitality.’13 Corbigny hoped for ‘its’ factory because other regional and rural towns already had

in Street theatre and the production of postindustrial space
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Refugees

recently, those of France and the Low Countries. Henceforth, refugees were in the public midst, and could no longer be hidden from view. This ‘silence’ might also have emanated from a fear of fifth columnists. As John Anderson, Viscount Waverley, the Home Secretary and Minister of Home Security, confessed to his father on 2 March 1940, ‘the newspapers are working up feeling about aliens. I shall have to do something about it, or we may be stampeded into an unnecessarily oppressive policy.’3 At around the same time, the Council of Austrians in Great Britain protested that

in The forgotten French

order of importance, the trade union movement, the ILP, the Fabian Society, and the SDF and Vic02 10/15/03 2:10 PM Page 33 MAIN POLITICAL INFLUENCES 33 various Marxist groups. In addition to these, a fifth grouping had a remarkable degree of influence over Labour’s developing foreign policy, and this was composed of radical Liberals, epitomised by the members of the UDC. Each of these groups had its own particular influence over the way that foreign policy and international affairs were thought about. Each had their own particular analytical framework for

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1

forms of government’. 28 John Vincent was of the view that ‘Kant appeared to imply an exception to the rule of nonintervention if by intervention a republic could be established or a despotic regime crushed’. 29 Along similar lines, Fernando Tesón maintains that Kant’s ‘nonintervention principle is dependent upon compliance with the First Definitive Article. Internal legitimacy based on respect for human rights and democracy is what

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
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persistence of and the changes in Anglo-Canadian identity through the 1930s are examined in the fifth chapter, which also documents the effects of the Second World War in re-defining and shifting this identity towards centring Canada. The sixth chapter examines the innovative work of the IODE in memorialization and considers war memorials as producers of identity, again tracing the shifts from colonial

in Female imperialism and national identity
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Nuns’ narratives in early modern Venice

, perhaps, considering the customary intransigence of the Venetian republic in response to the dictates of Rome, the State lent its secular arm to the Church in support of the drive to enclose female religious houses. Since the early sixteenth century, the government had busied itself increasingly with matters of conventual discipline. By the time of Laura Querini’s trial, the secular legislation on nunneries had reached its zenith. In 1605, the Venetian Council of Ten produced its toughest law to date against unauthorised intruders, for the first time prescribing the

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700