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that argument before posing some questions of the human condition. The argument in summary The problematic of inter-​civilisational encounters is a point of reference for the version of civilisational analysis assembled in these pages. Yet the sociology of encounters between civilisations also has its limits. It has yet to extensively unpack colonial modernities, capitalism and new world and oceanic societies 186 186 Debating civilisations in the theatres of the Americas and Oceania. The perspectives in post-​colonial sociology, Marxism and globalisation

in Debating civilisations
How to make sense of responses to environmental problems

neoliberal principles – the heightened rate of efficiency brought on by innovation is a key avenue towards improved environmental outcomes. But emphasizing efficiency often means downplaying overall consumption, something that can indeed rise higher even as production processes are made ‘greener’, given the growth imperative inherent to capitalism. This phenomenon, termed ‘Jevons’ paradox’, is based on the finding of economist William Stanley Jevons in the mid-1800s that consumption of coal rose

in The greening of golf
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(1994) had the foresight to recognise that these alternatives are not necessarily exclusive, that reflexivity and fundamentalism are both coherent responses to the risks of our ‘second modernity’ (Beck, 1992; Beck et al., 1994). This ambivalence has characterised the post-communist years, with the globalisation of deregulated markets, consumer values and western power being accompanied, first, by the mobilisation of social movements opposing corporate capitalism and then by the globalisation of insecurity, fear and revenge (Mouzelis, 2001). Yet is Giddens (1998, 1999

in After the new social democracy
Class polarisation and neo-liberalism in the Irish Republic

neutral and scientific, economists are usually deeply committed to the free market system. They dismiss any notion that capitalism may have inherent contradictions, which lead inevitably to business cycles. Instead, they often focus on extraneous or even psychological factors as the cause of recessions. Thus the ‘oil crisis’ is held up as the standard explanation of the global downturn which began in 1973, while the terrorist attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001 are supposedly the cause of a new downturn. (The notion that 11 September caused a global

in The end of Irish history?
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War, National Debt, and the Capitalized State

2 Origins: War, National Debt, and the Capitalized State The initiators of the modern credit system take as their point of departure not an anathema against interest-bearing capital in general, but on the contrary, its explicit recognition. (Marx 1981: 429) In order to trace how debt became a technology of organized differential social power under capitalism and the consequences this technology has on social relations and the environment, we must provide a brief genealogy of its emergence. Due to disciplinary silos and the prevalence of contested concepts

in Debt as Power
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pursuit of alternatives to rational action and rational choice theory and its insistence upon the embeddedness of economic activity in social and societal context. There has been a parallel revival of interest in evolutionary processes in economics, stimulated largely by Nelson and Winter (1982), but drawing on a much deeper tradition of economic thinking about dynamics associated with Schumpeter and to a lesser extent Marx and Veblen. Its roots lie in a concern with the dynamics of capitalism, since all evolutionary theories are at root theories of why a particular

in Market relations and the competitive process

humanly emancipated. Hence there must be a difference between political and human emancipation. (Marx and Engels, The Holy Family ) 2 Capitalism has not only doomed the social function of the Jews; it has also doomed the Jews themselves. (Abram Leon, ‘Toward a Solution to the Jewish Question’) 3 Within the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, the perspectives of Jewish emancipation and the Jewish

in Antisemitism and the left
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, then, that a fresh bout of ideological revisionism consumed the democratic left in the 1980s and 1990s, as social democrats sought to come to terms with the latest permutation of capitalism’s relentless capacity for innovation. In tandem with these ideological debates, social democratic parties fought, with varying degrees of intensity, to remain electorally competitive, a struggle that reached its fleeting high watermark M1738 - CALLAGHAN TEXT.indd 1 3/8/09 12:13:29 2 Introduction in 2000 when thirteen out of the fifteen EU member states had at least some

in In search of social democracy
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Why anarchism still matters

-systems. There are a number of critical positions that differentiate ecological forms of anarchism from their more mainstream counterparts. These have included social ecology, deep ecology and anarcho-primitivism as well as a number of permutations of these perspectives such as the ‘inclusive democracy’ project of Fotopoulos (1997).3 Despite huge differences between these positions as well as within them, there are serious attempts within each to utilise ‘holistic’ perspectives on the impact of capitalism and industrialisation on non-human ecosystems and human

in Changing anarchism
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political independence had been denied by continuing economic dependence on the former AFRICA 141 colonial powers. Dependency writers stressed not only the external orientation of African economies, which constrained the prospects for internal growth, but also how such ‘underdevelopment’ underlay the political power of the emergent African bourgeoisies – the principal beneficiaries of ‘neocolonialism’. Even where, as in Nyerere’s Tanzania, there were attempts to ‘de-link’ from metropolitan capitalism by pursuit of socialist strategies, state control of the economy

in Democratization through the looking-glass