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The case of the Netherlands
Stuart Blume

6 The erosion of public sector vaccine production: the case of the Netherlands Stuart Blume Introduction Despite earlier resistance to compulsory smallpox vaccination, by 1900 the possibility of protection against diphtheria was greeted with hopeful anticipation. Diphtheria, a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, caused the deaths of many children. At the end of the

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Vaccine policy and production in Japan
Julia Yongue

promote industrial development in Japan but to respond to criticism in the United States of the financial burden of stationing troops and administrative personnel in Japan. 19 Though SCAP officials’ efforts to provide safe and effective vaccines were well intentioned, adverse incidents occurred. The most famous incident was the 1948 Kyoto-Shimane Diphtheria Tragedy, which resulted in an exceptionally high death toll of eighty

in The politics of vaccination
Christine E. Hallett

memoir of the war with a foreword in which she described how, in the mid-1930s, she had rediscovered her diary: a ‘record of the year 1918’, wrapped in a small French tricolour. At this point, Europe seemed to be moving inexorably towards another war, and her fear that warfare would threaten the future of her five-year-old son prompted her to write a book, somewhat eccentrically entitled I Saw Them Die.5 True to its title, the book contains numerous references to horrifying deaths in French military hospitals. Millard writes of the power of a long-forgotten diary to

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

All That, Richard Aldington’s Death of a Hero, and Siegfried Sassoon’s Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man.46 ‘Why should these young men have the war to themselves?,’ asked Vera Brittain.47 Her Testament of Youth gave women a voice in the memorialisation of the war dead, and offered a strong and convincing argument for pacifism. Mary Britnieva’s One Woman’s Story also appears to have been a text with a purpose, reading as a testament to the suffering of the Russian people.48 Other works appear to have been drawing on the ‘girl’s own adventure’ genre of writing, epitomised

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
The origins and endurance of club regulation
Duncan Wilson

of scientists ‘in their own sphere’, and did not believe that outsiders should determine scientific or medical conduct.72 Perhaps the only advocate of external involvement with medicine or science in this period was the playwright George Bernard Shaw, who remained a committed anti-vivisectionist and supporter of alternative medicine until his death in 1950. In his 1909 play The Doctor’s Dilemma and a series of later essays, Shaw argued that doctors were motivated by profit and ‘professional trade interest’ rather than a concern for patients and the public.73 This

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

public had contradictory expectations with regard to disease management. On the one hand, parents had ceased to be overly concerned about diseases that were now so rare that few had direct experience of severe complications or death. To some extent this was evident in the diphtheria programme in the 1950s, but was considered especially prominent with pertussis in the 1970s and measles in the 1990s. On the other hand, reports of the increased morbidity of vaccine-preventable diseases reflected poorly on the government and the nation as a whole. These contradictions

in Vaccinating Britain
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume and Christine Holmberg

Variola ; D. A. Henderson, Smallpox: The Death of a Disease – The Inside Story of Eradicating a Worldwide Killer (Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2009); I. Arita, The Smallpox Eradication Saga: An Insider's View (Hyderabad: Orient BlackSwan 2010); W. Foege, House on Fire: The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2011

in The politics of vaccination
South Korea’s development of a hepatitis B vaccine and national prevention strategy focused on newborns
Eun Kyung Choi and Young-Gyung Paik

towards death, but it is also possible that the infected person would first develop cirrhosis or cancer of the liver. In the aftermath of the Second World War viral hepatitis attracted increasing research attention. An extensive hepatitis epidemic, which was noticed by US Army health officers, occurred among American troops stationed in Germany, but the transmission route of viral hepatitis was highly uncertain. It was not only in Germany that viral hepatitis

in The politics of vaccination
Jane Brooks

amongst other tragedies a typhus epidemic, caused by the inability to maintain personal hygiene in the trenches on the Eastern Front.73 Joanna Bourke explores the legendary sub-­zero temperatures at Stalingrad that led to the deaths of thousands of German troops from hypothermia and diseases associated with it.74 Although there is an acknowledgement that poor weather led to disease, death and in some cases failure to win b ­ attles – p ­ oor weather hampered the movement of allied troops into Germany in the early months of ­1945 – ­discussions of weather, apart from the

in Negotiating nursing
The emergence of bioethics in British universities
Duncan Wilson

groups appear ‘non-partisan and independent of all interest groups’, it did not satisfy those who wanted the subject to be included in the medical curriculum.7 In a 1967 Lancet article, for instance, one student noted how controversies over organ transplants and the definition of death ensured that medical ethics had become ‘an important facet of the profession’s public image’, but complained that ‘in the training of medical students, however, the subject of a doctor’s ethical commitment is presented in a haphazard manner’.8 The author argued that little mention was

in The making of British bioethics