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relationship between state and civil society, and the final three look beyond the state to issues of global concern and relations between states. While not an exhaustive survey therefore, we have tried to offer a wide selection of the concepts used to discuss most dimensions of politics. Notes 1 Two well-known examples of this genre are T.D. Weldon, The Vocabulary

in Political concepts

norms exert influence over behaviour in cross-​border relations requires reconceptualising the space of global governance as more than a dynamic, inclusive, vast network of governance. Rather, we need to consider how delimited and ‘local’ the meeting places of cross-​border politics –​what we can term global governance policy fields –​frequently become. 83 84 Arctic governance This chapter examines Russia’s engagement in the Arctic Council over time to see how its preferences are met (or not), and discusses what this can tell us about the rules of the road in

in Arctic governance
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Rethinking anarchist strategies

, opportunity, perception and aspiration do not still exist, since clearly they do, maintaining inequality in many global contexts. However, focusing on any one economic group as the agent of change is misleading in the extreme, just as hanging on to notions of class more reminiscent of the era of George Orwell (1949, 1984) or Richard Hoggart (1957) is also unhelpful. It is important to remember that in times of social change, the working classes have been found to work both for the forces of liberation and reaction, as have members of the other socio-economic classes. As

in Changing anarchism
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triumph of liberal capitalist democracy on a global scale. Some of the inadequacies of contemporary liberalism are discussed and an estimate is made of the future that lies in store for liberalism. POINTS TO CONSIDER Is liberalism culturally specific to Westernisation or is it of universal value? To what extent is the liberal focus on the individual based on a misunderstanding of human nature

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Theorising Arctic hierarchies

of public goods were provided by the United States and the Soviet Union in their respective spheres of influence. In the post-​ Cold War period, the question of whether the USA can act as a fully global hegemon in delivering global public goods is actively debated. At the same time, US dominance in the international system has not been replaced by another power, however unevenly enacted or contested this American hegemonic position has become. This incomplete/​partial hegemony thus ties back into broader debates discussed in the introduction to this volume about

in Arctic governance
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War, Debt, and Colonial Power

events leading up to the debt crisis of the 1980s in what today is referred to as the Global South. We conclude the chapter with a brief examination of the sovereign debt crisis in the so-called heartland of global capitalism. Imperial monetization, transformation, and resistance European colonial encounters during the so-called age of exploration revealed modes of life, cultural practices, and systems of meaning that were different from those experienced in Christian Europe. Outside Europe, different forms of money and exchange were observed, but in many instances

in Debt as Power
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issues concerning debt and economic stabilization. Later, when most countries in the region adopted market reforms, these became the main focus of discussion. Today this kind of approach has evolved into a literature on the relationship to be expected between market-oriented reform (or globalization) and democracy. The tone of the literature has become notably more pessimistic over the past few years. If we abstract from economic issues (which is hard to do), then a positive case can be made for the consequences of democratization. The Latin American state now is

in Democratization through the looking-glass

1995; Birochi 1999). Some indicate that these changes were due to wider changes in the international arena. With the end of the Cold War, the EU was given the chance to develop a global vision and a space in which to do it (Aldecoa Luzarraga 1995; Birochi 1999). The internal changes in the EU, especially its increased integration, have also been mentioned in this regard (Aldecoa Luzarraga 1995). For Laporte Galli (1995), the reasons are various: firstly, the Commission had an ambition to develop an external policy with one voice, independent from the individual

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
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Ash dieback and plant biosecurity in Britain

Netherlands. Plant disease outbreaks are on the increase worldwide and many are linked to international trade. 196 Science and the politics of openness Countless pathogens, insects and animals circulate through the global trade network as travel companions in plants, soil, logs, packaging materials, nursery stock, fruit and seeds (Brasier, 2008: 793–794, 796–797). They pay no heed to political or geographical boundaries, and with changing climate conditions their border crossings are increasingly common and successful. Unfortunately for native, locally adapted plant

in Science and the politics of openness
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this section each address notions of being and becoming within different areas of anarchist theory and practice. Indeed, it is the ontological dimension of contemporary anarchism – especially the placing of Self within a wider ecology of global relations, human and non-human – which distinguishes anarchism from radical perspectives that retain too much focus on materialism and political economy. The fact that anarchism has largely premised its critique on a psychological dimension to power relations, not just a material one, has been an advantage in this respect

in Changing anarchism