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therefore argue that no economic system is fully capable of preserving the environment: it is certainly necessary to ‘Green’ the economy, but even a Green economy could not perform all of the work of sustainability that needs to be done. For this, a wider conception of social activity and participation is required. In short, sustainable work takes us beyond the employment society in order to preserve the intrinsic essence of ecological value. These counterpoints resemble each other in that both are concerned with the emotional and ecological conditions of economic value

in After the new social democracy
The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia

originally intended.12 Confronted with a relative decline in power, large states often seek to maintain influence by making concessions to prevent defection and balancing by previous allies. Smaller powers may seek to sustain multilateral institutions, but also to adapt them to gain more influence. Moreover, great powers are positioned to lead coalitions with smaller states – which make residual institutions useful in lowering transaction costs. Institutional forms reflecting hegemonic influence can alleviate the security dilemma, because smaller states receive security

in Limiting institutions?
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land tenure and work location? How did the poor and the poor law balance the different elements of the economy of makeshifts in response to different life-cycle stages or different causes and 258 Conclusion 259 durations of poverty? Were there regionally distinct economies of makeshifts or were the similarities greater than the differences? How did the constellation of coping strategies employed by those who obtained poor relief differ from that assembled by those denied relief or too proud to apply? In particular, what impact did access criteria have on the

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Future Earth, co-production and the experimental life of a global institution

particular, it focuses on the reconfiguration of several existing international GEC research programmes into one initiative: Future Earth (henceforth FE), an international research initiative on GEC and sustainability that was launched in 2012 and became fully operational in 2015. This reorganisation is accompanied (and in part motivated) by ambitions for a ‘new type of science’ (FE, 2014: 2) and ‘a new “social contract” between science and society’ (FE, 2013: 11). To achieve these aims, FE is unique in explicitly adopting co-design and co-production of knowledge as a

in Science and the politics of openness
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Notes on the art of the contemporary

form of abbreviation needs to be found. A shortened yet insistent staging of the issues involved in a sustained investigation of the contemporary will stem from a consideration of the terms ‘transformation’ and ‘inclusion’. As will be seen, their positive and negative determinations can be taken as defining an opening in which the art of the contemporary can be located.2 Prior to pursuing the detail of these terms their initial field of operation needs to be identified. They stage a number of different possibilities. The term ‘transformation’ marks the presence of a

in The new aestheticism
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Conceptual links to institutional machineries

40 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS 2 Gender mainstreaming: conceptual links to institutional machineries kathleen staudt We enter the new millennium with a quarter-century of experience in reflection and practice about women and subsequently gender in development. This experience builds on the voices of many diverse people who share stakes in and support a broad definition of development, used here to mean the enhancement of human capacity in a world that sustains, rather than undermines, its natural resources.1 Such enhancement can hardly occur in a world lacking good

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
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Syrian displacement and care in contemporary Beirut

that it indexes a complex, non-dichotomous relationship between ‘home’ and ‘displacement’, and reiterates the importance of attending to sustained, embodied and reciprocal care in addressing art making by or about displaced persons. Postcards from Hamra Over six months in 2015, I was regularly emailed ‘postcards’ by the Beiruti community artist Dima el Mabsout, consisting of individual or grouped photographs, each accompanied by a date, title and short text written by her. I first began working with Mabsout when she successfully applied to be artist

in Performing care
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1 Introduction Alannah Tomkins and Steven King The poor in England Introduction Historiography of parish poor relief Olwen Hufton could hardly have realised her future impact on the history of welfare when in 1974 she titled two of her chapters on the poor in France ‘The economy of makeshifts’.1 It is a phrase which neatly sums up the patchy, desperate and sometimes failing strategies of the poor for material survival and has been much repeated since 1974. Other phrases (discussed below) may try to represent the same essential idea but none have been so

in The poor in England 1700–1850

something. The first case examines how key political actors worked to sustain a representation of the region as cooperative in a time of geopolitical crisis outside the Arctic itself, following Russia’s annexation of Crimea. From there, we move on to a more granular policy scale seeking to see how particular types of representations of the Arctic matter for specific political outcomes. The two remaining examples look at framings relevant for clarifying policy debates around what kind of actors belong in Arctic politics, namely the participation of non-​Arctic states and

in Arctic governance

Commission, which led in turn to DEFRA’s Strategy for Sustainable Farming and Food chap 5 13/8/04 4:22 pm Page 109 Food agencies as an institutional response 109 (2002) laying out a reordering of policy. At the EU level the hitherto largely autonomous agricultural policy process, as enshrined in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), is also evolving through a long and ongoing period of policy adaptation. The signalled intention of the next phase of CAP reform is to shift supports more substantially away from production subsidies to the (largely non-production) rural

in Qualities of food