Open Access (free)
Popular magic in modern Europe

The study of witchcraft accusations in Europe during the period after the end of the witch trials is still in its infancy. Witches were scratched in England, swum in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands and shot in France. The continued widespread belief in witchcraft and magic in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France has received considerable academic attention. The book discusses the extent and nature of witchcraft accusations in the period and provides a general survey of the published work on the subject for an English audience. It explores the presence of magical elements in everyday life during the modern period in Spain. The book provides a general overview of vernacular magical beliefs and practices in Italy from the time of unification to the present, with particular attention to how these traditions have been studied. By functioning as mechanisms of social ethos and control, narratives of magical harm were assured a place at the very heart of rural Finnish social dynamics into the twentieth century. The book draws upon over 300 narratives recorded in rural Finland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that provide information concerning the social relations, tensions and strategies that framed sorcery and the counter-magic employed against it. It is concerned with a special form of witchcraft that is practised only amongst Hungarians living in Transylvania.

Open Access (free)
Crossing the margins
Glenda Norquay and Gerry Smyth

relation to different definitions of ‘the margins’, a spatial concept which has had much currency but which might increasingly be questioned on theoretical, geographical and political grounds. Among other things, we are interested in the geographical edges of the cluster of islands in which we live, the terrain historically described as the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland’. To use ‘margins’ in this context suggests a spatial and definitional grouping of ‘nations’, organised around a putative English ‘core’ often operating

in Across the margins
Open Access (free)
The European Union and its member states

This book takes up traditional approaches to political science. It aims to offer a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, the book highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, it shows how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It explores how governmental and non-governmental actors in different national settings adapt to common challenges, constraints and opportunities for which they are mainly themselves responsible. The book discusses the Belgian policy toward European integration as a significant demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security and economic affairs. Attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Greece, and Spain are discussed. Tendencies towards 'Europeanisation' and 'sectoralisation' of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually reinforced each other. Strong multi-level players are able to increase their access and influence at both levels and to use their position on one level for strengthening their say on the other. German and Belgian regions might develop into these kinds of actors. A persistent trend during the 1990s is traced towards stronger national performers, particularly in terms of adaptations and reactions to Maastricht Treaty.

Barbra Mann Wall

. They provided care, sustenance, help for orphans and protection of those suffering from the violence. Several authors have described the politics and humanitarianism of organisations that flew nightly shipments of food and medicines to a starving population in the southeast region during the war.2 As these accounts are told, the relief work was essentially a European and American enterprise. Yet examination of healthcare activities at the local level reveals both Irish Catholic missionaries and Nigerians themselves working collaboratively to care for the ill and

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

century. There has been a Scottish Nationalist movement for over a century although the Scottish National Party (SNP) did not come into existence until 1928. Welsh nationalism is a younger phenomenon, but Plaid Cymru – the Welsh Nationalist party – does date back to 1925. Both these movements were certainly influenced by the fact that Ireland had been granted virtually full independence in 1921. independence The situation in Northern Ireland has been, quite If one of the countries of the UK became independent it clearly, very different. The full circumstances of would

in Understanding British and European political issues
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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Basil Glynn

noting how seldom England’s most famous king has been played by an Englishman, even in Anglophone productions, being portrayed by the Australian-born Keith Michell, American Charlton Heston, Irish Robert Shaw, Welsh Richard Burton, South African Syd James and, in The Tudors , the Irish Jonathan Rhys Meyers. The international dimensions of British historical film and television production are actually

in The British monarchy on screen
British women in international politics
Heloise Brown

, Elizabeth Pease Nichol and Eliza Wigham), Ireland (two members, Isabella Tod and Anna Haslam) and finally, France (four members). This meeting created the circumstances for domination of the Council by British suffragists, in particular the radical suffragist wing of the women’s movement, which has been explored by Sandra Stanley Holton. Holton suggests that moderate suffragists such as Lydia Becker were sceptical of the proposal and even envious of Stanton and Susan B. Anthony’s leadership. She argues that the radical suffragists, and Ursula Bright in particular, may

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
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witchcraft continued
Willem de Blécourt and Owen Davies

, witches were scratched in England, swum in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands and shot in France. In her seminal review of witchcraft studies concerning the continuation of witchcraft after the end of the witch trials, Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra made a similar observation. She introduces her itinerary through European witchcraft research with a number of cases ‘from Ireland to Russia’ in which witches were burned as a result of

in Witchcraft Continued
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Campaigns and causes
Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

unjust fees or rents, drew attention to grievances though seldom got them rectified. New causes, such as the pacifist campaign to get troops out of Northern Ireland, won support. Both provocation and repression adopted new forms. A student pamphlet of 1970 had thrust into the mouth of authority the words: ‘We’ll call out the cops and arrest all you rabble, Revolution’s a word that’s fit only for Scrabble.’ In reality, however, the practice of summoning the police only took hold a few years later, when militant campaigners adopted the new tactic of imprisoning members

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90