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Domestic change through European integration

-Arbeitspapier) (Vienna, 1995); Christian Schaller, ‘Zur Diskussion um den österreichischen EU-Beitritt’, in: Emmerich Tálos and Gerda Falkner (eds), EU-Mitglied Österreich. Gegenwart und Perpektiven: Eine Zwischenbilanz (Vienna: Manz, 1996), pp. 17–32. Note that Austria’s preparations for accession had already started before democratic resolutions in Eastern Europe and before the USSR changed its foreign policy behaviour – see Jeffrey Lantis and Matthew F. Queen, ‘Negotiating Neutrality: The Double-Edged Diplomacy of Austrian Accession to the European Union’, in: Cooperation and

in Fifteen into one?
New Labour and public sector reform

to performance measurement. Referring to schooling, the chief executive of the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (Ken Boston) commented that ‘no other country devotes as much time and expertise to developing measures of pupil progress’ (quoted in Hill 2007b: 279). Indeed, Hood contends that the Blair Government ‘arguably took the target approach . . . to a point hardly seen since the demise of the USSR’ (Hood 2007: 96). The underlying rationale is that the quality of a service can be established with some accuracy and precision by constructing measured

in In search of social democracy

-ethnic empires and republics (e.g. the USSR, Yugoslavia) was linked to their immediate and unconditional accession to international human rights and non-proliferation conventions. Practices in regional organizations constitute a species of the genus of recognition. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European Union (EU), the Organization of

in Recognition and Global Politics
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to be on the march by the end of the twentieth century. It was attractive, successful, adaptable and able to combine freedom with order. The end of the Cold War saw democracies established in Eastern Europe and the former states of the USSR. Elsewhere, too, concepts of citizenship and popular sovereignty appeared to be on the rise. The future of democracy appeared to be rosy. But all is not as well as one might have hoped

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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early nineteenth century). There has been little attempt to integrate the public and private sectors to increase social equality and little desire to do so. One can set declining interest in equality in Britain within an international context. The decline and fall of the Soviet Union removed a major force for equality in the West. The USSR was oppressive, bureaucratic and a disaster for its own working class. But

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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led to the acceptance of a consensus in British politics by most Conservatives. The consensus included the creation of the modern welfare state, a mixed economy and a commitment to full employment, all of which involved a substantial role for the state in society. The end of empire and the Cold War struggle with the USSR also involved a commitment to a strong state. The victory in the world war apparently vindicated such a strong

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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and state institutions. Socialism of the Marxist strain was connected with the communist states of Eastern Europe, the USSR and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). It stressed egalitarian values more than individual freedom. State power was used to strengthen these values as a stage towards the achievement of communism. All too often state socialism tended to stress the ‘state’, rather than ‘socialism

in Understanding political ideas and movements

vehicles and road building on the environment, human health and wildlife. Spectacular environmental disasters, such as the Seveso dioxin chemical plant disaster in Italy (1976), the Bhopal chemical plant explosion in India (1984) and the Chernobyl nuclear power explosion in the USSR (1986), intensified environmental worries. The crucial point is that these portents of deep gloom were based on an allegedly scientific analysis

in Understanding political ideas and movements
The Marshall Plan films about Greece

Civil War in Greece, which had erupted very soon after the liberation of the country from the Nazis. The Greek Civil War (1945–9) was fought between the Greek Government Army (backed by the United Kingdom and the United States) and the Democratic Army of Greece (backed by the USSR). 11 The MP publicity campaign in Europe was thus addressing a much more divided public. Scholarship on the MP films and the

in Global humanitarianism and media culture

was superfluous or undesirable. Teodor Shanin, the Lithuanian-born Professor of Sociology, arranged in 1989 for young Soviet sociologists to attend summer schools in Manchester and to rectify, on behalf of Gorbachev’s regime, the shortage of sociologists in the USSR which had occurred ‘in the generation of Brezhnev’. Sociology had then been proscribed as a bourgeois discipline, thus creating an extraordinary generation gap, for leading Soviet sociologists were either in their sixties or in their twenties, with nobody in between. Despite its desire to see an end of

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90