further discussion of the sensory engagement antitheatricalists associated with
theatregoing see Hannah August’s Chapter 11, in this volume.
11 A second and third blast of retrait from plaies and Theaters (1580), p. 64. All further
references are cited in the text.
12 For further examination of the role of the mind, as well as the eyes, in visual deception see Stuart Clark’s Vanities of the Eye: Vision in EarlyModernEuropean Culture
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007): ‘visual experiences were constructed out
of mental expectations as well as data transmitted by
John Donne, George Chapman and the senses of night in the 1590s
, albeit in enigmatic ways.
Donne, Chapman and the senses of night
1 For images of the Doom see www.wenhaston.net/doom/ [accessed 1 July 2013].
2 John Milton, Paradise Lost www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/
book_2/ [accessed 23 July 2014]; Paradise Lost, ed. by Alastair Fowler (London:
Longman, 1968), p. 118.
3 Craig Koslofsky, Evening’s Empire: A History of the Night in EarlyModernEurope
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 1–2; on ‘segmented’ sleep, see
4 R.C. Bald
Antony and Cleopatra and visual musical experience
order to stop him seeing Beaumelle,
Charalois still recognizes his wife aurally. Charalois’s demand for visual stimulation typifies early modern expectations of complete musical experience, doing
so in explicit and unequivocal terms.
Similar responses to hidden musical performance appear in textual accounts
of court entertainment that circulated in print in earlymodernEurope. In
Olivier de la Marche’s late fifteenth-century French work, Memoirs of the House
of Burgundy, a text that enjoyed multiple printings in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the author
Balance, malleability and anthropology: historical contexts
anthropological theory developed in the study of twentieth-century rural Africa, used by Keith Thomas to explore earlymodernEuropean witchcraft.
This does not, of course, make Keith Thomas a ‘postmodernist’. However, it highlights the exchange between social history and anthropology more generally. It shows how practices that are seen as part of ‘postmodernism’ in the 1990s are influenced by practices lifted from anthropology in the 1980s. Bernard Cohn sees deep connections between
, monitored and punished. Ironically, then, the result of the Inquisition’s
actions may well have been even greater contact between the two communities
with heightened mutual curiosity, fascination and interest.
1 See Jan Fiar Bestor, ‘Bastardy and Legitimacy in the Formation of a Regional State in Italy: The
Estense Succession’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 38/3 (July 1996), pp. 549–85.
On the position of the Pope in earlymodernEurope see the excellent work of Paolo Prodi in
The Papal Prince: One Body and Two Souls
l. pp. 953–59. Subsequent references, given parenthetically, are to this
75 Whether or not the witch of Endor had any real power was a disputed point
in earlymodernEurope, as was the nature of the apparition that spoke
to Saul; see Stuart Clark, Vanities of the Eye (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2007), pp. 242–44, and the section on Macbeth in Chapter 3.
Witchcraft in Elizabethan drama
(presumably the same prop was used in Greene’s Friar Bacon and
Friar Bungay), and delivers false prophecies which lead directly
to the death of the
Geoffrey Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde and John Lydgate’s Troy Book
suggests, as will be discussed below in its
medieval application, crowd-sourced, open-access approaches did not
produce a sustainable practice for writers or readers.
32 Spiro Kiousis, ‘Interactivity: a concept explication’, in New media and
society 4.3 (2002), 355–83, at 356.
33 Elizabeth Eisenstein, The Printing press as an agent of change: communications and cultural transformations in early-modernEurope. 2 vols.
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).
34 For a magisterial response to Eisenstein’s argument, along with a
detailed counter depicting
of Glass broken. Her master swore, that she being in the middle
of the Room, she suddenly screamed out, saying, Something is got
into my back, when going to her, he pulled out a great piece of Clay
from about the middle of her back, stuck as full of pins as ever it
71 Brian P. Levack, ‘The Decline and End of Witchcraft Prosecutions’, in The
Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in EarlyModernEurope and Colonial
America, edited by Brian P. Levack (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2013),
pp. 429–46 (pp. 438–39).
72 This pattern is described by
first section of this chapter discusses the
nature of body and spirit as understood in early modern thought
and the importance of these concepts within the Restoration witchcraft debate. The following section turns to witchcraft as it was
represented in the theatre, highlighting both growing scepticism
towards witchcraft and growing interest in the operations of spirit
in the material world.
The nature of spirit and body
A great deal was written in medieval and earlymodernEurope
about the nature of spirits and their relationship to the human body
and the physical
Atlantis and the laboratory of prose’, in Elizabeth Fowler
and Roland Greene (eds), The Project of Prose in EarlyModernEurope and
the New World (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 143).
10 See ibid., pp. 147–8 and also Chapter 8 of this volume.
11 Box points out the ‘ahistoric quality’ of Bensalemite society, which
appears to exist ‘in a seemingly timeless present’ without appearing to be
‘oriented to the future’ (The Social Thought, p. 128). Box links this temporal
quality to the relative inactivity of Bensalem’s citizens, who seem to want