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Defences advanced in early modern sodomy trials in Geneva
William G. Naphy

Reasonable doubt 7 Reasonable doubt: defences advanced in early modern sodomy trials in Geneva William G. Naphy There are few charges that can be made against individuals more likely to damage their lives, reputations and futures, than sexual deviance.1 In the early modern period, the danger was even greater as the crime carried the death penalty. For those faced with the gravest of punishments, one might be inclined to suppose that there was only one sure defensive strategy: outright denial. However, before testing this hypothesis, some general information on

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Contemporary ‘British’ cinema and the nation’s monarchs
Andrew Higson

of Elizabeth equally demonstrate the extent to which the mise-en-scène of majesty is a theatrical construction in the early modern period as well, but in this case there is a clear link to political authority and agency that is absent from The Madness of King George . The late modern theatre of power is then a performance without political substance, although it still has a symbolic charge in

in The British monarchy on screen
Torsten Riotte

the practice of treating negligence as a ‘common’ crime, and hoped to establish professional courts that would treat negligence as a disciplinary offence. 53 German doctors had been state-controlled and legislated since the early modern period (and with increasing intensity since the second half of the eighteenth century). Whether or not doctors were allowed to settle and practice at a specific place depended on an official licence issued by the so-called medical police

in Progress and pathology
Open Access (free)
The growth and measurement of British public education since the early nineteenth century
David Vincent

condition of a society was a consequence in the first instance of the creation of a functioning state infrastructure. There are isolated instances of systematic recordkeeping at least of reading abilities which stretch back into the early modern period, particularly where protestant churches imposed obligations on their clergy to inspect the condition of their congregations. The most notable case was Sweden’s Church Law of 1686 which required tests of the capacity of families to read the Bible. However, it required the intervention of later twentieth-century historians to

in History, historians and development policy
Nico Randeraad

written by Venetian ambassadors, Tuscan diplomats and papal nuncios of the early modern period. He gleaned from Niccolò Machiavelli’s work, for example, that it was an old Italian tradition for statesmen to base political action on statistical information. Of course Maestri also alluded to more recent heroes of Italian statistics. Like every statistician of his day, he paid homage to the ideas of Melchiorre Gioia (1767–1829) and Gian Domenico Romagnosi (1761–1835), who were invariably cited when it was necessary to underscore the existence of a national statistics

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Lucy Munro

bad behaviour. Taken together, these verbal and visual responses to taste suggest its dominant associations in the early modern period. Linked with bodily pleasure and fleshly desire, taste both enabled the Fall and forcibly reminded commentators of it, facilitating lesser sins that mirrored the great Christian act of transgression; simultaneously, however, taste protected the body and allowed for discrimination. All of these features made it ripe for exploitation within the playhouse. Material tasting Randolph’s depiction of Acolastus and these pictorial

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
An examination of touching moments in dance of court and courtship
Darren Royston

that all dancing is an abuse. He remarks that, ‘as concerning dauncing, I wold not haue thee (good Reader) to think that I condemne the exercyse it self altogether’ (¶6v). He makes it clear that ‘though I conde[m]ne all filthie, luxurious and uncleane dauncing, yet I condemne not al kind of dauncing generally (N8r). He is able to discern between dances that are morally acceptable and those that are not. The level of touching that occurs in dance could be one of the main distinguishing factors in categorizing different forms of dance in the early modern period

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Antony and Cleopatra and visual musical experience
Simon Smith

performance in fifteenth-century Italy.4 Early modern sources preserve many accounts of musical experience – both real and imagined – that constitute musical performance as a fundamentally multisensory phenomenon. Unsurprisingly, music was generally conceptualized in the early modern period as a primarily aural phenomenon, working upon the body and mind through the organs of hearing, yet this sensory process was not understood in isolation from the stimuli that music offered to the other senses. In particular, the sights of performance are overwhelmingly presented in early

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Open Access (free)
Beowulf translations by Seamus Heaney and Thomas Meyer
David Hadbawnik

The word ‘nation’, indeed, while dating at least from the late medieval period in English, originally referred to a common racial or ethnic group rather than a political entity; 75 nation did not carry a sense of ‘country’ until at least the early modern period, and the modern nation-state arguably did not emerge until the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. 76 While elsewhere the frequently used leod could be glossed ‘people’ or ‘nation’, it does not

in Dating Beowulf
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s Britain
Jane Hand

preservation long pre-dated these post-war health education initiatives and had been evident since at least the early modern period in England, where dietetic culture was central to medical understandings of the self. 10 But personal body management techniques including the control of diet and exercise endured as an essential part of personal identity and social worth in post-war Britain, where the consumerist society contributed to the creation of new disease-focused diet cultures. The centrality of the self to risk factor

in Balancing the self