Jeremy C.A. Smith

sciences. The perception of materiality had origins in scepticism, materialism and idealism in the Mediterranean’s antiquity. Another reference point, ancient kingship, embodies a nucleus of sacred and political power in the historical studies of civilisations that inform Eisenstadt’s theory. But treating the problem of political power in the modern world is a different matter and one that demands a wider span of imaginary reference points. On the whole, as Arnason has more recently argued, the problematic of power as constitutive of civilisations is neglected in

in Debating civilisations
John Marriott

against anarchy and the single greatest obstacle to change, he warned Indian and European modernizers of the potentially catastrophic nature of change promoted by idealism. The racial inferiority of Indians justified, even demanded, their continued dominance by Britain. It was, concludes Dirks, a ‘bloody legacy that continues to exact a mounting toll’. 154 With perhaps less momentous consequences

in The other empire
Open Access (free)
Walt Whitman and the Bolton Whitman Fellowship
Carolyn Masel

sought the betterment of society through education, the improvement of the urban environment and the preservation of the countryside, the humane treatment of animals, a holistic approach to manufacture, equal rights for women and a more widespread acknowledgement of the bond of love between male friends and comrades of both sexes. The story of the Bolton Whitman Fellowship is, above all, a story of persistent idealism in the face of adversity: the story of a shared aspiration that endured through the individual privations and suffering of its members and the daunting

in Special relationships
Open Access (free)
Andrew Bowie

version of the tension between the new mythology and aesthetic autonomy which emerged with Idealism and Romanticism. The tension between the desire for Conclusion 321 art to facilitate new versions of existing forms of communication, and the idea that modernity leads to the need to find forms of articulation that circumvent the dominant modes of human exchange in the name of radically new possibilities is a perennial aspect of modern culture. Decisions on the significance of these positions and practices will only be of value if they contextualise the issues

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

organ, composed of delegations from national parliaments. A Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe is a consultative body representing local and regional authorities. A particularly well-known part of the Council of Europe is the European Court of Human Rights, which bases its judgements on the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Cr0ft, Redmond, Wyn Rees and Webber (1999, Ch. 6) see a ‘mix of idealism and instrumentalism’ in the attitudes of new and aspiring members to the Council of Europe. Membership is seen by some as a

in Destination Europe
Johan Östling

‘to form’ or ‘to shape’. It was in the decades surrounding the year 1800 that the word had a real impact on the debate of ideas and in the consciousness of the emerging educated middle classes (Bildungsbürgertum). Even if it appeared in various guises, their common sustenance was the specific combination of German New Humanism, Enlightenment thought, and idealism that characterised the intellectual climate in German-speaking Europe at that time. It is significant that Bildung lacks a direct equivalent in other major languages. Translations such 25  Wilhelm von

in Humboldt and the modern German university
The structures of migration in Tales from Firozsha Baag
Peter Morey

home coincides with Percy’s return from the village in which he has been working, with the shocking news that Navjeet has been murdered by hostile moneylenders. Jamshed’s cynicism appears momentarily vindicated: is Percy’s idealism any less delusory in a context where violence and brutality are endemic in the feudal power structures of rural India? (In this plotline, ‘Lend Me Your Light’ comes closer to one of the main themes of A Fine Balance than any of the other tales.) Kersi asks, ‘In all of this, was there a lesson for me? To trim my expectations and reactions

in Rohinton Mistry
Open Access (free)
Towards an archaeology of modernism
Jay Bernstein

resists artistic forming is both a critique of aesthetic idealism and a reversal internal to autonomous art whereby its stakes are transformed from ideal to object, hence a demand for a bottom-up rather than top-down form of working. This thesis, if correct, would certainly lead to the monochrome and the readymade having a quite different significance than that usually offered. Equally, it is this reversal in which ideal is the vehicle for its spleenish other that gives Adorno’s aesthetics its most peculiar inflection: art is the vehicle for and hence for the sake of non

in The new aestheticism
Steven Fielding

fuelled by ‘intoxicated idealism’.79 In contrast, H. A. Alavi, a Pakistani Labour activist, believed that as restriction pandered to racism it would merely promote its growth.80 Yet even some who argued that Labour should stand firm in the hope this would eventually overcome white prejudice accepted the party would lose votes in the short term.81 Promoting integration In March 1965 Wilson informed the Commons that, while his government planned to reduce immigration, it would also take steps to ensure that once they were in the country new settlers were treated as full

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Open Access (free)
Henry David Thoreau
David Herd

, and because since the 1850s American writers, poets especially, have been working on the house that Emerson and Thoreau built, a structure designed to house or at least to accommodate Kant, hence Emerson’s explanation of the otherwise unhelpfully numinous term by which he and his contemporaries made themselves known: It is well known to most of my audience that the idealism of the present day acquired the name of transcendental from the use of the term by Immanuel Kant of Konigsburg, who replied to the skeptical philosophy of Locke which insisted that there was

in Enthusiast!