Barbra Mann Wall

Jamaican physician, first described this condition: C. D. Williams, ‘Kwashiorkor:  a nutritional disease of children associated with a maize diet’, The Lancet, 226:5855 (1935), 1151–2. 36 Diary, 23, 28 January and 14 February 1968. 37 Diary, 3, 6 March 1968. 38 Diary, 12, 19, 25 March 1968. 39 Diary, 28, 29 March 1968. 40 Diary, 14 April 1968. 41 Diary, 29 March 1968. 42 Diary, 26 March 1968. 43 Diary, 6 May 1968. 44 Diary, 26 March 1968. 45 Diary, 10 June 1968. 205 Barbra Mann Wall 46 Diary, 30 March 1968. 47 Diary, 4 April 1968. 48 Diary, 26, 27, 28

in Colonial caring
Sabine Clarke

the CPRC in 1944. At this meeting, members of the CPRC were given a list of new factory enterprises in the colonies for manufacturing soap, margarine and food yeast. Food yeast was derived from a specially selected variety of yeast grown on molasses and then processed into a pale yellow powder that could be incorporated into various foodstuffs. 43 The British government had high hopes for food yeast in the Caribbean as it provided a source of protein rich in vitamin B that could be effective in tackling the nutritional problems of the region. A government

in Science at the end of empire
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

British population’s relationship with sunlight, especially ultraviolet light, was complex and contentious, and remains so to this day, as evidenced by continued concerns about sun safety, skin cancer, rickets, and depression. Throughout the 1928 supplement, ultraviolet light was described as a source of essential nutrition, able to combat rickets by stimulating the production of vitamin D: ‘light is a food

in Soaking up the rays
Bonnie Evans

’ causing ‘somatic as well as neural’ abnormalities. They also considered the importance of birth injury and post-natal infections or ‘chemical, nutritional and endocrine causes’ that affected the development of the brain and body. This brought a new dimension to the approaches that could be taken to ‘mental deficiency’ as a psychological problem. 151

in The metamorphosis of autism
Nico Randeraad

spinal column, which was inspired by medical debates on the influence of nutrition, climate and physical environment on that part of the body, a rather delicate one. He feared that at least half of humanity would appear in a bad light if questions were asked about physical aberrations of this nature. His countryman Joseph Garnier added that no one would want to interrogate a lady about physical defects. Disagreement arose in the French camp about the penalty for refusing to furnish requested information. Alfred Legoyt, the head of France’s census bureau, the

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Nico Randeraad

studying women’s labour and child labour, living conditions and nutrition.8 85 chap4.indd 85 02/12/2009 12:14:38 States and statistics in the nineteenth century The tradition to which Marx referred was more recent than he may have thought. It was not until the years after 1830 – the same period when statistical activity began to diversify – that people started conducting social surveys in the large cities. It was not by accident that the rise of statistics in those years coincided with a strengthening of the central state, which – until then – bore little resemblance

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Curse or blessing?
Simona Giordano

the 1800s. During the following century, biomedical sciences also tackled much better the diseases of older people, particularly cardiovascular diseases. Improvement in living conditions, provision of clean water and sewage disposal, better nutrition, better education, better income and better medical care have all contributed to doubling life expectancy in just over a century, initially more prominently in middle- and high-income countries (Bonicelli and Sciarretta 2005), and now across the globe (WHO 2015a). Among all these factors, it seems that the contribution

in The freedom of scientific research
The relative efficacy of poor relief provisions under the English Old Poor Law
Richard Smith

agricultural productivity is indeed compelling. Nonetheless, it is not at all clear that nutritional factors should be regarded as decisive in determining these differences. It is doubtful whether patterns of breast-feeding in the first six months of life varied as much as they did after the first six months of life, but nonetheless we find contrasts between France and England that stand out in the early as well as the latter parts of the first year and the subsequent years 1–4 and 5–9, pointing, it would seem, to the importance of factors to do with the quality of the

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Ecopoetics, enjoyment and ecstatic hospitality
Kate Rigby

engaged in vital conservation and (increasingly, anticipatory) restoration efforts (Altman and Kerins 2012).4 Mathews also foresees a vital place for those techno-scientific advances (for instance, in nutrition, housing, water use and energy production) that could help to relieve the human pressure on the biosphere as we Deep sustainability 61 transition to a new, ‘ecological civilisation’.5 In addition to constraining human population growth and consumption levels through democraticallyinstituted forms of sustainable development that promote social equity and

in Literature and sustainability
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

(Bunyakiri), Syndicat de Protection des Intêrets Paysans (Beni), UPDI and Association Nutrition Assisse Communautaire (ANAC). The first three are federations of cooperatives operating across different territories within the province. UPDI and ANAC also operate as broader platforms for peasants to exchange products and cultivation techniques, provide community service, conduct lobbying activities and attract international funding. UPDI has eight cooperatives associated with five territories in South Kivu (Kabare, Kalehe, Walungu, Mwenga and Uvira), and ANAC works in Mabuku

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making