Jamaican physician, first described this condition: C. D.
Williams, ‘Kwashiorkor: a nutritional disease of children associated with a
maize diet’, The Lancet, 226:5855 (1935), 1151–2.
36 Diary, 23, 28 January and 14 February 1968.
37 Diary, 3, 6 March 1968.
38 Diary, 12, 19, 25 March 1968.
39 Diary, 28, 29 March 1968.
40 Diary, 14 April 1968.
41 Diary, 29 March 1968.
42 Diary, 26 March 1968.
43 Diary, 6 May 1968.
44 Diary, 26 March 1968.
45 Diary, 10 June 1968.
Barbra Mann Wall
46 Diary, 30 March 1968.
47 Diary, 4 April 1968.
48 Diary, 26, 27, 28
the CPRC in 1944. At this meeting, members of the CPRC were given a list of new factory enterprises in the colonies for manufacturing soap, margarine and food yeast. Food yeast was derived from a specially selected variety of yeast grown on molasses and then processed into a pale yellow powder that could be incorporated into various foodstuffs. 43 The British government had high hopes for food yeast in the Caribbean as it provided a source of protein rich in vitamin B that could be effective in tackling the nutritional problems of the region. A government
population’s relationship with sunlight, especially ultraviolet light, was
complex and contentious, and remains so to this day, as evidenced by
continued concerns about sun safety, skin cancer, rickets, and
Throughout the 1928 supplement, ultraviolet light was described
as a source of essential nutrition, able to combat rickets by stimulating
the production of vitamin D: ‘light is a food
’ causing ‘somatic as well as neural’
abnormalities. They also considered the importance of birth injury
and post-natal infections or ‘chemical, nutritional and
endocrine causes’ that affected the development of the brain
and body. This brought a new dimension to the approaches that could
be taken to ‘mental deficiency’ as a psychological
spinal column, which was
inspired by medical debates on the influence of nutrition, climate and physical
environment on that part of the body, a rather delicate one. He feared that at
least half of humanity would appear in a bad light if questions were asked about
physical aberrations of this nature. His countryman Joseph Garnier added that
no one would want to interrogate a lady about physical defects.
Disagreement arose in the French camp about the penalty for refusing to
furnish requested information. Alfred Legoyt, the head of France’s census
studying women’s labour and child
labour, living conditions and nutrition.8
States and statistics in the nineteenth century
The tradition to which Marx referred was more recent than he may have
thought. It was not until the years after 1830 – the same period when statistical
activity began to diversify – that people started conducting social surveys in the
large cities. It was not by accident that the rise of statistics in those years coincided with a strengthening of the central state, which – until then – bore little
the 1800s. During the following century, biomedical sciences also tackled
much better the diseases of older people, particularly cardiovascular diseases.
Improvement in living conditions, provision of clean water and sewage
disposal, better nutrition, better education, better income and better medical
care have all contributed to doubling life expectancy in just over a century,
initially more prominently in middle- and high-income countries (Bonicelli
and Sciarretta 2005), and now across the globe (WHO 2015a). Among all
these factors, it seems that the contribution
The relative efficacy of poor relief provisions under the English Old Poor Law
agricultural productivity is indeed compelling.
Nonetheless, it is not at all clear that nutritional factors should be regarded as decisive
in determining these differences. It is doubtful whether patterns of breast-feeding
in the first six months of life varied as much as they did after the first six months of
life, but nonetheless we find contrasts between France and England that stand out
in the early as well as the latter parts of the first year and the subsequent years
1–4 and 5–9, pointing, it would seem, to the importance of factors to do with
the quality of the
engaged in vital conservation and (increasingly, anticipatory) restoration
efforts (Altman and Kerins 2012).4
Mathews also foresees a vital place for those techno-scientific advances
(for instance, in nutrition, housing, water use and energy production)
that could help to relieve the human pressure on the biosphere as we
transition to a new, ‘ecological civilisation’.5 In addition to constraining
human population growth and consumption levels through democraticallyinstituted forms of sustainable development that promote social equity
(Bunyakiri), Syndicat de
Protection des Intêrets Paysans (Beni), UPDI and Association Nutrition Assisse Communautaire (ANAC). The first three are federations of cooperatives operating across different
territories within the province. UPDI and ANAC also operate as broader platforms for
peasants to exchange products and cultivation techniques, provide community service,
conduct lobbying activities and attract international funding. UPDI has eight cooperatives associated with five territories in South Kivu (Kabare, Kalehe, Walungu, Mwenga
and Uvira), and ANAC works in Mabuku