Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace
Jeffrey Sosland

’s stated policy of not mining West Bank water for transfer across the Green Line to Israel proper. A quarter to a third of the pumped water was to go to Arab communities, with the remainder to go to Jerusalem and to Jewish settlements. Large shafts were to be dug and 18 to 20 mcm were to be pumped annually. The depth and scale of the wells, some Palestinian hydrologists believed, threatened to dry out

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Brent E. Sasley

population does not produce the revenue that is used to implement state policy, it is assumed, it has no right to claim a role in determining policy. See, for example, Hazem Beblawi and Giacomo Luciani (eds) (1987), The Rentier State (London: Croom Helm). 23 Another study argues that more democratic

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Theorising Arctic hierarchies
Elana Wilson Rowe

high-​ranking official to the Arctic Council. The Arctic includes two countries –​the USA and Russia –​that can be assigned great power status from their historical or current global roles. ‘Small-​statepolicy entrepreneurs focused intently on securing the participation of the USA and Russia. And the two countries played critical roles in the growth of circumpolar Arctic cooperation. The Soviet Union and Mikhail Gorbachev desecuritised Arctic space, and the USA agreed to support the AEPS and Arctic Council (in the end, and albeit on specific terms). This suggests

in Arctic governance
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou
Michael J. Tsinisizelis
Stelios Stavridis
, and
Kostas Ifantis

development of new structural variables as products of trends aiming at revising 124 Theory and reform in the European Union institutional entities and state policies. These trends can be seen as directly linked to problems and challenges of redefining basic tools of analysis: structure and the nature of the system, national interest, state sovereignty and power. In this context, any discussion about the prospects of a new system of collective security in Europe – as they have been expressed through the decisions taken in Maastricht, Amsterdam, Berlin and Madrid – should

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

‘the people of Turkey regardless of their religion and race were, in terms of citizenship, to be Turkish’. A number of problems emerge from this definition, concerning belief, language, national belonging and ideology, although state practice has been different, which had a ‘racist-​ethnic visage’ and a focus upon language.93 The Sheikh Said rebellion of 1925 brought such issues to the fore, notably questions about Kurdish integration into the new state. State policies to such questions involved relocation and ethnic redistribution and were supported by grassroots

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

depicts King Salman placing money into a jihadi piggy bank, while another shows the King throwing a boomerang with the face of a jihadi away from the kingdom 226 226 Houses built on sand towards Syria. By their very nature boomerangs return to where they were thrown from, suggesting that such problems will return to Saudi Arabia in the future. State policy in the face of regional and international challenges has only served to support such perceptions. Amid a range of political, economic and ideological challenges, regimes have firmly positioned themselves within

in Houses built on sand
New threats, institutional adaptations
James Sperling

from a warfare to a welfare state. Another is the context of international politics in Eurasia, which presently compels states to focus on relative rather than absolute gains in the calculation of state policy. A third is located in the inability to foster a collective identity encompassing the European and Eurasian states, which, in turn, will impair international cooperation and institution building. The European and Eurasian states are at different stages of evolution: the European state has lost or willingly abandoned sovereign prerogatives in the interest of

in Limiting institutions?
Louise Amoore

to globalisation (Reich, 1991; Department for International Development, 2000). The overwhelming image is one of a convergence of state policy, firm behaviour, and societal response around a single ‘best’ solution. Much of this analysis subordinates the politics of restructuring to the economic imperative of particular policy responses. Distinctive social institutions, understandings and practices are neglected in the process of identifying converging agendas. Amoore_Global_02_Ch1 20 6/19/02, 12:07 PM Globalisation, restructuring and flexibility 21 Policy

in Globalisation contested
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

-ordinated with other countries; that the growth of public spending should be curbed; that the welfare state can be defended but not extended; that privatisation may be unavoidable and, when it eradicates monopolies, desirable; that equality, though still appealing as a goal, may be tempered by the need to preserve incentives and competition; that the power of international financial institutions – and above all, of financial markets – may be contained, if at all, only by international agreement and not by unilateral state policies. MUP_Torbion_06_Ch6 124 22/9/03, 1:47 pm

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

left-wing) terrorism, which is embedded in the official German state policy of streitbare Demokratie (militant democracy). According to the party terrorism is caused in part by the ‘general lack of legal security and community spirit’ (REP 1987: 15). Crime always received a lot of attention in the party paper, although over time it became more and more a secondary theme, featuring in articles that dealt primarily with foreigners, asylum seekers or with (critique on) the established parties. In the 1990s the party shifted its focus to a new group, the non

in The ideology of the extreme right