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retain political control and 42 DISCIPLINES helping it to overcome periodic unrest (notably Tiananmen Square in 1989). But while autocracy seems to have delivered the economic goods in East Asia, it was a dismal failure in much of Latin America (during the region’s periodic bouts of military dictatorship), and a complete disaster for the economies of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). African leaders sought acquiescence to single-party rule in exchange for delivering development. However, by the late 1970s this promise was no longer credible: terms of trade shocks together

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Critique and utopia in Benita Parry’s thought

aesthetic values. She and I have a long-standing disagreement over the literary merits of Olive Schreiner’s work, and, more generally, over the aesthetic contributions made by anti-colonial and post-apartheid South African literatures. Parry’s own taste tends, I think, towards the modernist, although she has done a great deal, in her work on Forster and Wells, to extend the canon beyond the modernist monopolies presented by Edward Said and Fredric Jameson. Willing as she is to credit metropolitan mimetic modes of the Victorian, Edwardian and modern periods with literary

in Postcolonial contraventions

' transoceanic movements, their conquest and acquisition of indigenous peoples' lands in the Americas, and their transportation of millions of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic are the acts of violence which ‘race’, in demarcating fully human and sovereign populations from those who were not, was constructed to enable and explain (Gilroy 1993 ). Outside postcolonial studies and anti-racist activism, white scholars are not used to calling these processes by names they use all the time to talk about collective violence in eastern Europe: displacement, forced migration

in Race and the Yugoslav region
Claude McKay’s experience and analysis of Britain

’s socialist pioneers, 1877–1930’, in Charles Payne and Adam Green (eds), Time Longer than Rope: a century of African American activism (New York: New York University Press, 2003). 14 See James Weldon Johnson, Black Manhattan (New York: Knopf, 1930), p. 246; and his Along This Way: the

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
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’. Finally, the OED notes an inclusive use of the term West Indian in 1961: all inhabitants of the Federation, of European, African, American Indian, East Indian, Chinese, Portuguese or Jewish descent are named as West Indian. ‘In his message to West Indians on Christmas day Sir Grantley Adams, the Prime Minister of the Federation, spoke of West Indian unity.’ ‘Out of many one people’, as the newly

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
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awkward intrusion into healthy bodies, have at different times and places strengthened or weakened social cohesion. This book's eleven chapters and afterword document key campaigns against major infections since 1800 (but mostly after 1950) in Europe, South and East Asia, West Africa and the Americas. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that

in The politics of vaccination

thematic. Beur literature only began to enjoy commercial success in the early s, when a substantial number of the children of North African immigrants first reached adulthood. The designation beur is considered an example of verlan – a form of French slang involving the inversion of syllables – stemming from the term ‘Arabe’. The term itself has become problematic in that its common currency in France and appropriation by the French media have endowed it with many of the pejorative, Occidental associations of its precursor. Alternative modes of designation refer to

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
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Ben Okri, Chenjerai Hove, Dambudzo Marechera

continuum of transition where occurs the inter-transmutation of essence-ideal and materiality’. See Wole Soyinka, The Road, in Collected Plays I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973); and Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), pp. 26–7.

in Stories of women
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds

islands and Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Four theories of the peopling of the Americas are still debated, but the Bering Strait land bridge is still considered the most likely route (Paine, 2013: 22–​5). Further migrations around Ando-​America and Meso-​America stimulated processes of primary state formation and civilisational crystallisation. When states disintegrated (the Mayan being a prime example) further waves of migrants entered the major centres, often resulting in the foundation of new states. In sub-​Saharan Africa early expansion of Bantu-​speaking peoples into

in Debating civilisations
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An introduction

articulated processes of colony and post-colony; indigenous communities in the Americas under colonial and national rule; peoples of African descent not only on that continent but in different diasporas across the world; and, indeed, subaltern, marginal, and elite women and men in non-Western and Western theaters. For a wider discussion, see Dube, Stitches on Time

in Subjects of modernity