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underpins women’s struggles for empowerment (Fuss 1989). However, even movements of democracy create their ideal woman erased of all differences – authenticity of culture is inscribed on women’s bodies and roles. Women have sought to democratize this discourse on two counts – first, by challenging the ‘orientalist’ and imperialist discourse of rescue of the women of particular (non-Christian/Western) cultures (Liddle and Rai 1998); and second by challenging the codes of silence that their own communities impose on them in the name of antiracism. By challenging both these

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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) Blood mixture and the resultant drop in the racial level is the sole cause of the dying out of old cultures; for men do not perish as a result of lost wars, but by the loss of that force of resistance which is continued only in pure blood. All who are not of good race in this world are chaff. (Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf , 1925) Fascists were

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Corruption breeds violence

corrupt officials but in fact his reign (which lasted until March 1985 when the newly arrived Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev made him the Soviet Foreign Minister) was marked by a steady growth of clan-based corruption culture.6 Overall, while the official figures for Georgia from the mid-1970s to the mid1980s showed a slow growth of the so-called ‘Net Material Product’ (NMP) and per capita income, in fact in that decade more wealth was generated ‘informally’ than was registered in the accounts. By the late 1980s, the real level of income and the standard of living in

in Potentials of disorder
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Deciphering power in Russia

The end of Putin (again)? Since Putin returned to the presidency in 2012, ‘Putinology’ has dominated the mainstream Western discussion about Russia. It has become the central pillar of what appears as a form of ‘neo-Kremlinology’, as observers seek to interpret subtle and often ambiguous indications of the relative influence of those who are close to Putin and thus on

in The new politics of Russia
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A European fin de siècle

discourse – the post-Cold War dominant moral discourse of the ‘West’. Claiming to have norms at its core (for example, NATO as a ‘community of values’), this discourse is about expansion and power, much like the Christian white man’s discourse that guided Western colonisation for the last 500 years under the banner of morality. After all, any ethical discourse is a discourse of power working by way of

in Mapping European security after Kosovo

the intervention of corporate interests into the production of knowledge has raised questions about its very constituency, particularly claims for ‘value freedom’. Moreover, the role of the academy, at least in many Western countries, has changed to incorporate these new priorities. Not only are there particular priorities to maximise student intake at all costs, but any research that is allowed to 40 Part I Thinking be conducted requires framing within the intellectual rationale and financial remits of corporate competitiveness. To many on the Left, these

in Changing anarchism
From universalisation to relativism

European art and thought from the twelfth to the eighteenth centuries. It is these representations which gave to the deranged horrors of Belsen a kind of ‘expected logic’. It is in the fantasies of the infernal, as they literally haunt western sensibility, that we find the technology of pain without meaning, of bestiality without end, of gratuitous terror.16 The horrors of the camps for Steiner would create a ‘post culture’, an era characterised by malaise and a lack of utopia, where no one seemed to have faith in Western civilisation’s promise of moral and cultural

in Balkan holocausts?
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Competing claims to national identity

Croatian nation and acted accordingly. In the economic field, Franjoism produced a set of policies that emphasised differences between Croatia’s ‘Western’ economic traditions and ‘Balkan’-style economies. A by-product of this, however, was the endemic corruption encapsulated by ‘sweetheart loans’. Franjoism was most successful in the field of education because the state controlled virtually all the resources in that area. It was able to control carefully what was taught, who did the teaching and what resources they used. Thus the Franjoist message was passed on to

in The formation of Croatian national identity
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about a ‘conflict of civilisations’ pitting the West against ‘illiberal’ cultures, and a sense of a diffuse but multifaceted threat to French national identity. Fewer attempts, however, have been made to take seriously the debate surrounding the headscarves affair as a form of philosophical engagement with general principles of toleration, neutrality, and citizenship.1 The headscarves debate has generally been perceived as too embedded in a particular socio-political context – too French, in a way – to be compatible with any familiar or plausible understanding of

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
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to Schleswig-Holstein, the old Länder had provided the new Länder in their constitution making with model structures and practices proven chap 4 27/5/03 142 11:54 am Page 142 The Länder and German federalism by time; now the new Länder were providing their western counterparts with innovative “modern” ideas for constitutional changes.1 The Basic Law and the Länder The Constitution of the Federal Republic, called the “Basic Law” (Grundgesetz) owing to its presumed provisional nature until unification was achieved, not only reintroduced a democratic and

in The Länder and German federalism