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It is frequently claimed that foreign policy making in Middle East states is either the idiosyncratic product of personalistic dictators or the irrational outcome of domestic instability. In fact, it can only be adequately understood by analysis of the multiple factors common to all states, namely: (1) foreign policy determinants (interests, challenges) to which decision-makers respond when they shape policies; and (2) foreign policy structures and processes which factor the ‘inputs’ made by various actors into a policy addressing these

in The international politics of the Middle East
Current policy options and issues

in Latin America and Central Asia. While illustrating limited degrees of success, statistical evidence requires us to remain sceptical of the DSI’s effectiveness in this field. Reports on the growth of the opium trade in Afghanistan point to the inability of the NATO coalition to eradicate this fundamental structure of Afghanistan’s war economy; while there are reports of overall reductions in some parts of the country, many areas, including those with the greatest levels of violence, continue to register high or even increased levels of production. Reports from

in Building a peace economy?

of a judicially active and autonomous ECJ. ECJ rulings reflect the interests of the member states and do not run contrary to them. If they did, member states hold the power of sanction over the ECJ through the revision of the Treaty, which could alter the structure and role of the Court (see for instance Garrett and Weingast 1993). Occasionally governments may be prepared to accept short-term losses in order to secure wider long-term gains. This interpretation accounts for instances where ECJ rulings appear to run contrary to member states interests, yet the

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Open Access (free)

overseas customers, it was felt by many that Britain would suffer. Among the problems of the economy were lack of capital investment, low levels of labour productivity, unsettled industrial relations and poor management. Britain seemed to lag behind its European partners in all these areas. Worse still, the British market was now thrown wide open to European exporters. The new economic structure While Britain was moving from being a world imperial power to a European player, the nature of its economy was also changing. The old, traditional industries steadily declined

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East

been more enduring than in any other Third World region. As Brown stresses, local players have always tried to manipulate such rivalry for their own agendas. But equally, imperialism’s fragmentation of the region into rival states often harbouring irredentist grievances against each other, its implantation of client elites and new class structures against local resistance and the creation and military enforcement of the state of Israel, have kept the region divided and dependent on external powers. Moreover, when there has been a hegemon on the world scene, it has

in The international politics of the Middle East

antipathy to cosmopolitanism, as well as to Jews, that Marx himself did not share. 40 As one loyal Stalinist put it, ‘cosmopolitanism is an ideology alien to the workers. Communism has nothing in common with cosmopolitanism, that ideology which is characteristic of representatives of banking firms and international suppliers of weapons and their agents’. Another described cosmopolitanism as ‘a false, senseless, strange and incomprehensible phenomenon’ and the

in Antisemitism and the left
Open Access (free)

period of crisis for the communist regime in Autumn 1989, Bohley was among those instrumental in founding New Forum, the best known of the new groups which tried to provide a structure for discussion within the burgeoning citizen movement. The pace of events in the GDR in 1989–90 tended to force the citizen movement to the margins of the political process, and Bohley became an opponent of the rush to reunification, arguing for a

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

war-damaged Berlin university in 1945 In the west, much of the old system seemed to endure. Nazism, the Second World War, the defeat, and the occupation did not alter the basic order that had been established during the nineteenth century. The organisation, the faculty divisions, the internal hierarchy of subjects – in all essentials, the structure remained the same. Nevertheless, people also faced a number of significant challenges in the western zones of occupation. Several comparatively small university towns, such as Marburg, Göttingen, and Tübingen, were

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Open Access (free)
The Debt–Growth–Inequality Nexus

vital role to play in ensuring the sustainability of economic activity. But the analysis … suggests that it is entirely fanciful to suppose that deep emission and resource cuts can be achieved without confronting the structure of market economies. (Jackson 2009: 86) Jackson is one of the few environmental economists examining the impact of economic growth on the environment, who recognizes that slowing or stopping growth will itself lead to economic disaster; that is, while continued growth will destroy the environment, stopping or slowing it will destroy the

in Debt as Power

credit societies failed to perform their primary function. 61 Furthermore, the Raiffeisen model failed to make inroads into the Irish credit market on account of the better-suited and longer-established joint-stock banking institutions. 62 The Great War exposed the precarious position of co-operative credit in Ireland. At the outbreak of the war the DATI and Congested Districts Board (CDB) withdrew the loan capital they lodged in the credit societies. This action led the IAOS to bemoan the fact that the withdrawal of these loans would ‘have a

in Civilising rural Ireland