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From an enabling towards a disabling state?

, 1957: 125). Since the 1990s, job quality in many countries has deteriorated considerably as a result of increasing income inequality, the increase in low-wage work and the constant fear of loss of income, even among well-paid workers.1 Jill Rubery has investigated these processes with us in several joint research projects with various thematic focal points (see, among others, Bosch et al., 2009; Grimshaw et al., 2014; Grimshaw and Rubery, 2015; Rubery, 2005). Rubery (2015) has concluded, on the basis of her wide-ranging experience, that the standard employment

in Making work more equal
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constitute such ‘possibilities’? How are they to be explored? What is the appropriate methodological line to that end? To start with, substantive progress in the field requires the transcendence of descriptive approaches about, on the one hand, the form and functions of the integrative process and, on the other, the resolution of fundamental conceptual problems confronting a discipline which has become subject to diverse interpretation. This requires, in Church’s words, ‘structured ways of understanding changing patterns of interaction’,4 free from the inherently

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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The emergence of a new major actor in the European arena

2444Ch8 3/12/02 8 2:03 pm Page 184 Felipe Basabe Lloréns Spain: the emergence of a new major actor in the European arena Introduction: the EU as a major step and catalyst in Spain’s ‘return to Europe’ Spain’s accession to the EC in 19861 was the result of a long political process and the fulfilment of a historical aspiration for Spanish society. For most internal and external observers, Spain’s entry into the Community constituted the final step of the transition process to democracy.2 Accession to the Community was supported at that time almost

in Fifteen into one?

was also above the EU average at that time (Figure 17.2). Minimum wage policy, internal devaluation and deregulation of the wagesetting system Reducing labour costs in the business sector of the economy was one of the key goals of the first EAP (2010–11) that considered it central to the process of ­internal devaluation intended to boost price competitiveness and reduce the external deficit. This goal became an explicit and quantified target under the  second EAP (2012–15), which necessitated a 15 per cent reduction. To achieve it, the first EAP imposed measures

in Making work more equal
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Flexible and pragmatic adaptation

characterised by a low degree of competitive behaviour, which can also be put down not only to the frequent consultations, but also to the fact that there are so few internal ‘cleavages’. Therefore, political decision-makers usually agree in principle that it is better for the country’s interests for them to agree on a negotiating position rather than block a national decision unnecessarily by stirring up interministerial rivalries. Dominance of decentralised decision-making processes Owing to the closeness of the relationships, the hierarchical decisionmaking processes in

in Fifteen into one?
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in the parking lot. There was no loud music playing during the game and the atmosphere was serious and competitive, rather than the joking, festival atmosphere of typical Maverick matches. The cultural influence of the organisers was seen and heard at the tea break: aloo gobi (potatoes and cauliflower) and naan (flat bread) were served along with tandoori chicken and rice, and the classical music of

in Sport in the Black Atlantic

the intervention of corporate interests into the production of knowledge has raised questions about its very constituency, particularly claims for ‘value freedom’. Moreover, the role of the academy, at least in many Western countries, has changed to incorporate these new priorities. Not only are there particular priorities to maximise student intake at all costs, but any research that is allowed to 40 Part I Thinking be conducted requires framing within the intellectual rationale and financial remits of corporate competitiveness. To many on the Left, these

in Changing anarchism
Analysing two arenas over time

century – created a new and particular kind of political system, which offers opportunities and incentives for making public policies beyond the borders of individual countries. We follow the conventional wisdom that in studying the EU polity it is also necessary to look at the national – constitutive – parts of the EU system. Since the early days of studying the integration process it became obvious that the political system of the Member States could not be treated as a ‘black box’, which would be irrelevant for the Brussels arena.5 As a logical consequence academics

in Fifteen into one?
New polity dynamics

reforms, paved the way for a new integrative stage, best captured by the term ‘nascent Gemeinschaft’. This is not to negate the usage of the term ‘integration’ in capturing the dynamics of the regional process, as it is still useful in the vocabulary of EU studies, insofar as it attempts to explain the joining together of previously independent entities under a new centre, whether or not federally organised. Yet, the point has been clearly made that ‘polity-formation’ is better equipped – both conceptually and operationally – to capturing the constitutive nature of

in Theory and reform in the European Union
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Speaking pictures?

Alexander’s failure to draw is illustrative of the depiction of visual representations in many early modern English plays; the unsuccessful process of image-making is on display at least as much as is the image itself, which remains notably incomplete. In early modern England, ‘display’ could mean to ‘unfold’ or ‘expose to view’, but from the late sixteenth century this term also indicated verbal revelation

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama