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internal as external threat; if little welfare or political rights are delivered, precarious legitimacy is exceptionally dependent on the nationalist or Islamic credibility of foreign policy (Dawisha 1990). Aspects of state formation This study will argue that several aspects of state formation are pivotal in determining the international behaviour of states and specifically to explaining variations in their foreign policies. (1) The circumstances of a state’s initial composition tend to set it on a

in The international politics of the Middle East
From starving children to satirical saviours

, including Save the Children, Oxfam and Christian Aid. 4 The campaign broadly aimed to tackle extreme international hunger by rallying the British public to use their national citizenship to pressure their MPs, prime minister and chancellor to take political action on aid, tax avoidance, biofuels and government transparency. Due to a limited financial budget, the Enough Food IF campaign organisers predominantly communicated their

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Offline and online games, branding and humanitarianism at the Roskilde Festival

.), Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations: Politics, Place and Power ( London and New York : Routledge , 2015 ), pp. 170 – 88 ; Biccum, ‘Marketing Development’; J . Street , ‘ Celebrity Politicians: Popular Culture and Political Representation ’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations , 6 : 4 ( 2004 ), pp. 435 – 52 ; D . Lewis , D . Rodgers

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East

to replace Iran as US regional surrogate, claiming that the USSR had become the main threat to the region. In return for Sadat’s service in ending the Arab threat to Israel and marginalising the Soviet Union from regional diplomacy, the US mediated the return of the Sinai and provided Egypt with a substantial yearly subsidy (Brown 1984: 184–90; Sela 1998: 158–70; Sheehan 1976; Smith 1996: 230–3; Telhami 1990: 62–71; Walt 1987: 177–8). Egypt’s saga provides key evidence on the dynamics of international-regional power relations in an age of bi

in The international politics of the Middle East
A veiled threat

territories, in terms of both domestic and international recognition. This was reinforced with the signing of the Oslo Accords in September 1993 ( Legrain, 1997 : 169). While it only recently acquired the state-like apparatus of a police force and a more fully-defined administrative structure, the PLO has long been the principal distributor of services and patronage through its control of civil institutions

in Redefining security in the Middle East

state parties and Arabism became an official ideology used to legitimise the sometimes state-centric policies of individual states. Political Islam and the international relations of the Middle East Whether political Islam – which rose parallel with the decline of Arabism from the late 1970s – constitutes a functional substitute for Arabism as a supra-state ideology is a matter of debate. It is far from clear that Islam similarly detracts from the legitimacy of the individual states. Vatikiotis (1987: 42–4) argues that

in The international politics of the Middle East

the material relationship between states and societies, or even of the natural struggle against poverty (Ouendji 2009; Latouche 2007; Ward 1973).3 Although a similar argument should be made of discursive and violent practices so far observed, creative survival figures prominently as an example of how patterns of resistance are recontextualised alongside changes in political and economic circumstances. Peacebuilding in this sense represents a contemporary snapshot of a historical process in which political, economic and cultural relations connect the local to the

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making

political consumerism as a channel for a humanitarian impulse? Can the everyday practice of consumption be a space of care and concern for international justice? In this chapter, I bring these questions to the analysis of the consumption of children’s toys and the online discussions of boycotting ‘unsafe’ toys. I explore how a neoliberal parenting culture in the West, which promotes a highly individualised

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Explaining foreign policy variation

the hallmarks of statehood – territorial demarcation and internal security – in return for eschewing Wahhabim’s universalistic Islamic mission. To minimise his consequent dependency, Ibn Saud sought to play off his British and American benefactors. But the Saudi state was, from the outset, secure enough in its Islamic identity and autonomy to pursue close mutually beneficial relations with the West (Bromley 1994: 142–7; Salame 1989). Saudi Arabia’s main vulnerability was a function of its large sparsely settled territory, with long, difficult

in The international politics of the Middle East

distinctive sphere from national and international. Rather, it is their co-constitution that unearths how different agendas are intertwined in a fluid, changing context. At times they are the most reliable security provider, even against the FARDC, yet at other times they are predatory and impose authoritarian rule. They also represent the militarised masculine version of a struggle for social justice. Amidst this, it is not possible to ignore that many combatants blame state agendas for the militarised context and the subsequent political, social and economic

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making