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-season. They lost weight by ‘wasting’, achieved through constant physical exercise wearing many clothing layers, using Turkish or electric baths, or dosing with purgative medicine. Without success few were able to maintain this self-discipline and the consequent strain of dehydration, malnutrition or bulimia. To ride into his mid-fifties Carslake needed a starvation diet, with only one meal a day – often a boiled egg, a piece of dry toast, a cup of tea. Some jockeys moved from the flat to steeplechasing where weights were higher, as did Frank Wootton who topped the

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39

reflected these interests. By quantifying the exact proportion of children who had particular tendencies, one could draw up plans to administer and manage those children in the education and health care systems, as well as in the growing system of educational psychology that would sit uneasily between these two. In Burt’s view, the collection of databanks of information for

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)

reality was well understood by those in charge of the nation’s affairs and consequently, the understanding was translated into policies favouring the ‘material factors’ of morale. For certain groups, these amounted to real improvements on pre-war conditions; but in general they were implemented in the knowledge that, for the most part, they could only offer mitigation of the worsened conditions brought by war. Their object was to so manage the stresses of war on the home front that defeatism was banished, war-weariness was held in check and the productive effort was

in Half the battle

had founded the Internationale Kriminalistische ­Vereinigung (or IKV, the International Criminological Association) in 1889, together with Belgian criminologist Adolphe Prins, Professor at Brussels University (later Vice Chancellor), and Dutch law professor Joost Adrian van Hamel. Liszt’s scholarship in criminal law – widely dissemin­ated through his 1881 textbook Das deutsche Reichsstrafrecht (German Imperial Criminal Law) – had already managed to shift the prevailing perspective from the authority of the law to that of the criminal act and its perpetrators. It

in A history of the case study
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West Indian intellectual

about Jean Rhys, that she knew so little, and wrote only about herself, and yet she managed to write novels which were completely modern, full of feeling, ideas, even literary terms that were absolutely of her time’. 30 Angier has done extensive work in tracing acquaintances and lovers, but she makes no attempt at intellectual biography. She is horrified by Rhys’s bad behaviour, her drunkenness, her

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
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the language she uses in describing these patients is quite patronising, she manages to convey a sense of the poignancy of her relationships with them: These sick men, mostly chest and heart cases, were in the lowest possible condition, almost starving, and we had great struggles to pull them through. One, who had intestinal troubles as well, had a temperature of 40 degrees Cent. (104 degrees Fahr.) for over a week … but at length he began to yield to treatment; and later he embarrassed me by announcing daily that he owed his life only to ‘Bogu e Gospodina’ (God and

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
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Conflict continues

in Lille regarding the distribution of medicine. Potié was interviewed by the Commissaire de Police of Loos but during the interview launched a scathing attack on Anjubault. He considered Anjubault to be avoiding his responsibilities, noted that everyone he spoke to said Anjubault was ‘not up to the task’ and refused to recognise Anjubault’s authority because he had not been appointed by the French Government. The Commissaire tried to explain to Potié ‘the extent to which the words he had spoken were imprudent and serious and above all incompatible with the current

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18

than it was saving. What was needed was the opportunity to stabilise the wounded, treat them for shock, and warm and reassure them, before moving them down the line.9 This meant keeping a shocked casualty for several hours in a forward field dressing station. Knocker managed to persuade the Belgian military authorities to permit her to establish her ‘Cellar-House’ in the tiny and almost totally ruined village of Pervyse, directly behind the Belgian front-line trenches. Casualties came with problems ranging from minor injuries, such as barbed-wire grazes, to serious

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
The idioms and risks of defiance in the trial of Margaretha Horn, 1652

during the tempestuous years of the Thirty Years’ War. She may even have known of Keil’s prophecy, as verbal and written accounts of it had circulated in southern Germany before the Württemberg authorities managed to quash them in 1648.40 Of course, the problem with the strategy of defiance employed by Margaretha was that the power to categorise the being she claimed had appeared to her in custody as either good or evil lay entirely in the hands of the councillors and their advisers. Sure enough, when jurist Georg Christoph Walther was finally asked for his opinion on

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany

societies to instigate reforms in response to changed economic circumstances and it ‘was called on to organise societies for milling, for curing bacon, for owning expensive machinery in common, to be lent out to members’. 38 For example, in January 1915 Abbeydorney Co-operative Society in County Kerry had 150 members, which included members of their auxiliary at Kilflynn. A hundred of these members directly supplied the central creamery and the remainder supplied the auxiliary. Organiser John O’Leary visited Abbeydorney and reported back to Robert Anderson on a well-managed

in Civilising rural Ireland