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The regent and the parlements

The bid for cooperation

John J. Hurt

for a while. He also launched a judicial persecution of financiers and revenue farmers to force them to return some of their profits to the regent. In other words, Noailles proceeded down a path already worn smooth by Colbert and others, hoping that, given time, he would shrink the debt and balance the budget. Perhaps he would have done, eventually, but in the near term he presided over a de facto, partial bankruptcy, not much different from the real thing.15 The parlements preferred almost anything to a declared bankruptcy and an outright repudiation of augmentations

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Making the most of opportunity

The economy of makeshifts in the early modern north

Steven King

. One of the most obvious responses to life-cycle need was to vary household size or structure, a point raised in the conclusion to this volume. While most census-type listings confirm that the small nuclear family and its servants has consistently lain at the heart of English household structure, these snapshot pictures tell only a partial story.29 Over the life-cycle of a family, periods of short-term complexity were more common than census listings allow, and this observation has particular resonance when we look at the household structures of the poor. Thomas

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The European Union’s dilemma

Towards a union or not?

Kjell M. Torbiörn

depreciating country evaporates quickly, causing capital flight and reducing foreign investment. This factor is far more important today than in, say, the 1960s, when capital was much less internationally mobile. Another is that a country which is tempted to depreciate for reasons of competitive advantage is also likely to have a considerable government debt, much of it incurred in foreign currency and owed foreign lenders. Depreciations thus add to the public debt, providing a further disincentive to follow this path. In short, countries are much less prone to engage in

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Philip Nanton

expressed surprise at the company’s willingness to support individuals in difficult circumstances. They can see the tangible changes to their living conditions – more regular health care, opportunities for house ownership and for educating their children to secondary school level, as well as the opportunity to obtain computing and other technical skills, all of which were in short supply when they were

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Alannah Tomkins and Steven King

consequence of the English settlement laws and the absence of a widespread tradition of seasonal migration.55 Similarly begging fell within its compass but was merely the most desperate of all possible makeshifts. In England the phrase has become a convenient shorthand to represent all of the ways which the mainly settled labouring poor made ends meet, the range of usually short-term strategies which might be brought into play when a family experienced unusual difficulty or was slipping into destitution. Making shift in the English context has therefore evolved into a

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Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

changed in rather complicated ways. Not only had they changed since the time of Oliver Stone’s original Wall Street in 1987, but they had renegotiated their relationship with institutions and the public in a dramatically short space of time: over the previous two-​and-​a-​half years. Therefore, Stone’s updating of arch protagonist Gordon Gekko’s exploits for the financially strapped twenty-​first century was a prescient cautionary tale and a morality fable of sorts; but it was also a vignette about Hollywood as an industry, as it gravitated increasingly towards box

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Richard Kelly

1987 and 1992 elections, and were only exonerated in 1997 after a disastrous period of Tory government.62 It is true that the language of OMOV was heard inside the Tory Party after 1997, and that this sometimes led (as with candidate selection) to greater empowerment of ordinary members. But, as with New Labour, the leadership’s use of OMOV was less a sign of thoroughbred democracy than of short-term party management, helping to stifle the leader’s critics within the parliamentary party while making the party look more ‘modern’ and ‘inclusive’.63 The axis of the 1998

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John J. Hurt

fundamentals of venal office necessarily exerted a powerful effect on the magistrates, in both the long and short term, eroding wealth and status. Venal office, which had anchored family wealth in the sense of imparting stability, became a different kind of anchor, pulling wealth down.48 In 1711, Councillor Joachim Descartes was nearing the end of his thirtyyear career in the Parlement of Rennes. He declared to his heirs that he had purchased his office for 90,000 livres in 1680 but that it had currently fallen to 45,000. This loss, which saddened him as a father, diminished his

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Geopolitical constraints and institutional innovation

The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia

Sean Kay

significant countervailing pressures within Eurasia might force Russia to consider more cooperative or issue-linked bargaining strategies that eventually are reflected in new institutional forms. However, in the short term, Russia would be more likely to favour working bilaterally with each GUUAM member (as it has with Ukraine and Moldova) to undermine institutional cohesion. It is possible that with the growing US–Russian accommodation, reflecting a common interest in combating terrorism, the historical fears of Russian hegemony in the region will be allayed – particularly

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The UN’s role in historical context

Impact of structural tensions and thresholds

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Eşref Aksu

–South conflict, as we use the term, came into being in the mid-1950s when the South began to organise itself politically. In its initial period, the conflict had two major manifestations: decolonisation and non-alignment. The significant point in relation to both is that during this early phase the South defined itself vis-à-vis the North primarily in ‘negative’ terms. In other words, the southern countries