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to the forces of destiny and a desire to have some part in the overthrow of Prussianism. Crucially, he knew that many had already volunteered (‘a thing I never did’), and he felt he had to undergo the ordeal of the front in order to meet others afterwards with similar levels of experience. ‘When I meet people after the war who have lost sons or brothers or friends’, he rationalised, ‘it will be easier for me to look in their faces than it would be if I had stayed out of it.’4 The rigours of army life did not appeal to him and, when presenting arms to a visiting

in A war of individuals
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attempted to appropriate the dislocating experiences of urban environments. This ‘ambulatory observer shaped by a convergence of new urban spaces, technologies, and new economic and symbolic functions of images and products’ abandoned the dominant, fixed and seemingly stable perceptions of the previous century, and sought a truth ‘abstracted from any founding site or referent’. 5 This new observer attempted

in The other empire
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Mirrors of French ideals?

chap 6 22/3/04 12:54 pm Page 171 6 Manuals and hagiography: mirrors of French ideals? Didactic literature for bishops was hardly a new phenomenon in the seventeenth century; indeed its pedigree extends all the way back to the early church. Nor was it an exclusively French tradition. During the late sixteenth century numerous efforts were made outside France to produce texts which would be sources of both spiritual nourishment and practical administrative guidance for prelates.1 Within France itself, however, no work of this kind was produced during that

in Fathers, pastors and kings

scientific work that has been done has tended to focus on the US debates concerning ‘creationism’. Often, the more sophisticated research that has been undertaken has focused on distinct faith communities or those working within elite scientific institutions. Therefore, beyond the polar extremes of these debates we have no real idea of how the supposed clash between world views plays out in the day-to-day lived experience of wider publics, or the role of wider identity politics, or indeed geopolitics, in relation to the role of religion and science in society. Moreover, we

in Science and the politics of openness
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was a necessary condition of their spiritual natures that demons could not generate human offspring, Thomas recognized that both authority and common experience reported otherwise. To reconcile this apparent contradiction, he constructed an elaborate and unconvincing scenario in which succubi received semen from their human partners and then used this as incubi to inseminate women.20 Normally, of course, human semen lost its calor naturalis, and hence its potency, when removed from the body, but the superhuman speed of demonic motion was sufficient to overcome even

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft

, economic and cultural order. We examine here the genesis of the movement in the explosion of concern at the apparent threat to the planet in the 1960s, and its subsequent evolution as an ideological force and political movement. The various elements, spiritual and scientific, which have influenced the ‘green’ movement are presented and subjected to critical analysis. Finally, we consider whether the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Claude McKay’s experience and analysis of Britain

add for greater precision, a manual worker, one of Afro-America’s menials. 2 By the time he arrived in London, he was no ‘black Briton’ except in the most formal, judicial sense of that term. He certainly was from the British Caribbean but his self-identification had expanded through experience, travel and conscious decision He was a Pan-Africanist and a socialist – a race man and a class man, not

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain

is the increasing acceptability of the ‘Wilderness People’, as they were known in the nineteenth century, as an urban presence. The Spiritual or Shaker Baptists, as they became known, were officially banned altogether for some sixty years for religious practices that alarmed mainstream colonial society (though the ban was enforced for less than half of that time). My second example is the changing

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
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Towards a contemporary aesthetic

being. In all other respects they are the opposite of political, because in each one of these essays I strive to guide the reader not into the world theatre with its political problems but into his innermost being, before the judgement seat of his very personal conscience. In this I am at odds with the political thinkers of all trends, and I shall always, incorrigibly, recognize in man, in the individual and his soul, the existence of realms to which political impulses and forms do not extend.3 Here is an uncompromising expression of that spiritual, essentialist

in The new aestheticism
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, revolutionary action, authoritarianism and aggressive violent purposes. Much of this was derived from the military experience of many fascists during the First World War, though there were important sources in cultural and artistic movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Another inspiration was the spiritual qualities of the countryside, nature and peasant life – the embodiment of ‘true

in Understanding political ideas and movements