incorporation of immigrants in Western nation-states. In
fact, the concept first appeared in the vocabulary of the BritishEmpire after the loss of the American colonies, when officers in
London decided to tighten the reins on their subjects in the rest of
the empire. It is also worth recalling that the defeat of the
British in the American War and the Declaration of Independence of
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips, and Shurlee Swain
bringing to bear on existing scholarship an increasing awareness of the
construction of whiteness as an invisible but crucial pillar of race. 16
Part I canvasses the extent of the
‘second’ BritishEmpire after the loss of the American colonies
and the subsequent reappraisal of colonial administration that occurred in
the mid–late 1830s. Part II consists of three
chapters, grouped as ‘Establishing settler dominance’, in which
build-up of the BritishEmpire, when British banking institutions
were asked to safeguard valuables for clients on extended journeys.
The banks turned to the moving (drayage) companies for storage,
and the movers produced storage space in primitive lofts (Darden,
2001). Later, banks assumed responsibility for their own storage
in strong-rooms built in the basements of banks with vaulted ceilings
– hence the word ‘vault’.
Overwhelmed by overflows
But bank officials gladly relate a grand history of generic safekeeping dating back many thousands of years to ancient
worthless selves are now deem’d Marks of the most consummate
Wisdom; and the Man would be accounted frantick who should
hazard his Person or his Fortune abroad in the Advancement of Trade,
or gaining new Acquisitions to the BritishEmpire.55
Salmon’s treatment of Elizabethan trade and finance was shaped
by this narrative. In relation to the former, he sought to present
Elizabeth’s reign as a period of nationally beneficial commercial
endeavour. This was partly a product of the Queen’s own measures which, Salmon argued, drawing heavily on Camden, included
the running of
exemplar of how theatrical space works.
During a street theatre performance, the audience is aware of the material
reality of the street (whatever form that takes), in addition to the iconic and
indexical spaces described by Carlson.
27 Edward Ziter, for instance, has demonstrated how Victorian stage melodramas transformed the vastness of the BritishEmpire into easily comprehended theatrical landscapes, making geographically remote locales
intelligible as a ‘periphery’ bound to the ‘centre’ of London. See Edward
Ziter, ‘Staging the Geographic Imagination: Imperial
the Arctic region, largely
through scientific and military endeavours (Wråkberg, 2013).
The nineteenth and twentieth centuries also saw a new phase of
exploration in conversation with the State more directly, rather than the
broad consortiums representing various economic interests that drove
previous phases of exploration. Sir John Franklin, and later Fridtjof
Nansen, Roald Amundsen and Robert Peary are prominent names in this
regard. For example, Franklin’s journeys with the Erebus and Terror in
1845 were motivated in part by the Britishempire’s naval strength
British masculinities, pomophobia, and the post-nation
allegedly superior needs, Jimmy’s
leadership would crumble and his claim to heroic status evaporate. As
Osborne’s stage directions indicate, Jimmy’s frantic last-minute attempts
at consolidating his position cannot pre-empt his imminent dematerialisation: ‘He has lost [Alison and Cliff], and he knows it, but he won’t
leave it’ (10).
It seems tempting to read Jimmy’s angry young male struggle for an
anachronistic kind of masculine dominance, already lost to devolutionary processes of ever greater societal diversification, as symptomatic of
the break-up of the British
immigration from Europe and the BritishEmpire, Scotland has
historically and presently an overtly diverse cultural identity. Regardless
of what language or languages are spoken at present, most Scots are
aware of the linguistic diversity of their own backgrounds. A workingclass woman from a post-industrial Ayrshire steel town whose first
language is Scots may share with a middle-class man born in Edinburgh
whose first language is English the fact that each has a great-grandparent who was a native Gaelic speaker. This shows the degree of threat
of the BritishEmpire was now under way, so this represented less of a tie than before.
Furthermore, Macmillan had become aware that Britain was not the world
power it had once been. He managed to persuade a sceptical Conservative
party that an application should be made. Negotiations began in 1961, only
two years after EFTA had come into existence.
Three major obstacles existed which were likely to prevent British entry. They
1 French President Charles de Gaulle, a vehement nationalist, was determined that France should dominate the Community. If Britain
Adventure with the
Serbian Army, 1916–1919 (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, n.d.).
40 On the novels of Bessie Marchant, see: Michelle Smith, ‘Adventurous Girls of
the BritishEmpire: The Pre-War Novels of Bessie Marchant’, The Lion and the
Unicorn, 33.1 (2009): 1–25.
41 Sandes, An English Woman-Sergeant: 19–21.
42 Smith, The Second Battlefield: 55–6.
43 Mabel St Clair Stobart, The Flaming Sword in Serbia and Elsewhere
(London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1916): passim.
44 Stobart, Flaming Sword: 1–4.
45 Stobart, Flaming Sword: 1–4. On Mabel St Clair Stobart, see: Angela Smith