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An epilogue

indigenous authority and political economy; the containment of fluid borders between field and forest; and the subordination of the Indian economy to North Atlantic cycles of trade, profit-making, and consumption. On the one hand, the systematic destruction of forests, the conversion of commons into property, and the emphasis on increasing land revenue had led to the lineaments of an agrarian order

in Subjects of modernity
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as were accorded in the numerous colonies that eventually amalgamated into these four nations were generally dependent, at least in the first instance, upon the possession or occupation of individual private property – and not of communal land – a critical nexus between the economic and the political that formalised Indigenous incorporation within the settler economy. Its conversion into property illuminates the pivotal

in Equal subjects, unequal rights

‘numbers of cases’, and that it was ‘a very large factor’ and played ‘a very prominent part’. The chief constable of the West Riding claimed that of the 457 embezzlement 109 110 Horseracing and the British, 1919–39 and fraudulent conversion claims of the last 5 years, gambling had been a factor in 58 cases. Such evidence led the Commission to conclude that ‘the weight of evidence shows that gambling is responsible for a considerable proportion’ of such cases.36 Gambling was also linked to violent crime. The anti-gamblers noted the evidence of racecourse criminality

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39

religious structures, from the late fourteenth century, shaped its migration history in many ways (Sugar 1977 ; Hoare 2007 ; Wachtel 2008 ). Authorities directly settled Anatolian Turkish cavalrymen on conquered land as ‘timariots’ who taxed local peasants and raised troops, while Ottoman trade-routes developed towns like Sarajevo and Thessaloniki into provincial capitals, refuges for many Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. The Ottoman politics of conversion to Islam, necessary for South Slavs and other Catholic/Orthodox Christians seeking bureaucratic

in Race and the Yugoslav region
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Crossing borders, changing times

. With the changing political order of Europe, these discourses also changed in content, yet without ever losing their general moral tone in which ‘the West’ considered ‘the East’ as its dangerous, Muslim-dominated antagonist. This notion fostered the establishment of a territorial border region within the neighbouring, mainly Christian-dominated Hapsburg Empire, which acted as a buffer zone towards Islam and the Ottoman state while simultaneously emerging as a frontier of cultural contact and tolerance, migration and conversion. Such themes still resonate today and

in Migrating borders and moving times
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Ecopoetics, enjoyment and ecstatic hospitality

nonhumans alike find themselves in the same ‘nest’, one that is at once constitutive of, and constituted by, the Earth’s biosphere. The precise coordinates of this meta-nest are provided by the nine ‘planetary boundaries’ identified by Johan Rockstöm and colleagues at the Stockholm Resilience Centre, which define limits to climate change, biodiversity loss, changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, ozone depletion, ocean acidification, freshwater use, changes to land use (especially the conversion of wildlife habitat to agricultural or industrial purposes), chemical

in Literature and sustainability
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Walt Whitman and the Bolton Whitman Fellowship

’s disciples came 116 Carolyn Masel to the poet through an experience akin to religious conversion, precipitated by a particular crisis.20 In the Bolton group, both Wallace and his friend Dr John Johnston attest to having separately undergone an experience of this nature and so conform to the pattern articulated by Sarracino in relation to Whitman’s more famous followers: R.M. Bucke, Anne Gilchrist and John Burroughs. Wallace referred to the profound change in his consciousness following his mother’s death simply as an ‘illumination’; much later, in 1915, he would speak

in Special relationships

unchanged in their behaviour. This time the lead actor had undergone a genuine conversion, caused by the new policy of repressing resistance in the parlements.70 Meanwhile, the Parlement of Rennes, alone among the tribunals, fought a rearguard action against the recent fiscal edicts, registering the laws but declining to enforce them. Even before 1673, it had refused to assess appeal fines in cases where the law now required them, obstructed the efforts of tax farmers to enforce fiscal legislation, and tried to reclaim the revenues from greffes and fines. Local revenue farmers

in Louis XIV and the parlements
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two years without the Parlement’s sanction, it now sought its seal of approval to calm public fears. The Parlement’s deputies could accept the conversion of notes into rentes, a step that, after all, repudiated at least one of the principles of John Law. But they wanted a 5 percent interest rate, 3 percent at least. Although he said he might increase interest rates in the future, Orléans declined to pay the new rentes at more than 2.5 percent. On the other hand, he agreed to certain textual changes in the edict in order to satisfy the deputies on minor points and

in Louis XIV and the parlements
The resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts

-product of the techno-diversification process. It was an ideal fit for Massachusetts.42 It has re-invented manufacturing in the region.43 The techno-diversification of Route 128 is itself a consequence of the conversion of systems integration from a technological to a business and Resurgence of Route 128 183 industrial organisational capability. The conversion can be understood in terms of the diffusion of the new model of technology management, the establishing of a complementary business model capable of driving the new principle, and an advanced, diverse, flexible

in Market relations and the competitive process