The Indian experience
Shirin M. Rai

10 to 12 per cent of their total membership’ (Department of Women and Child Development, 1988:157). India has had a strong multi-party political system since its inception in 1947. There was a short period (1975–77) during the national Emergency declared by Mrs Gandhi when civil and political rights were suspended. Other than this, political parties have continued to play an important role in mobilizing and articulating interests and representing these in the political sphere. While providing political stability and a degree of accountability through elections

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Open Access (free)
Mark B. Brown

Tsouvalis examines the UK’s emergency response to a deadly fungal disease affecting ash trees, known as Chalara or ash dieback, which gradually spread across Europe during the 1990s and early 2000s. When it reached the UK in 2012, scientists knew little about the disease, and some of what they knew turned out to be wrong. Its arrival thus created an urgent need for government action in the face of scientific uncertainty, leading to an opening of scientific and public discussion through open-source platforms for sharing data and various kinds of citizen science. Tsouvalis

in Science and the politics of openness
Steve Sohmer

; he laboured tirelessly and heroically in Elizabeth’s service in the northern wars, on her Privy Council, and as chief of her personal bodyguard during the Armada emergency of 1588. Like Shakespeare’s Faulconbridge, who sought no honours beyond service, Carey (on his deathbed) refused Elizabeth’s offer of an earldom. 9 Carey was no fey courtier

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Elisha P. Renne

a state of emergency had been imposed on three northeastern states – Borno, Yobe and Adamawa, 67 two of which were named in the IMB report. Aside from implementing a state of emergency and closing down radio stations that broadcast shows critical of the polio vaccination campaign, critics of the GPEI have also been threatened with arrest. In some communities with low levels of immunisation where parents have continued to resist the polio

in The politics of vaccination
Charles V. Reed

promises of imperial service and citizenship during and in the aftermath the war. 9 In India, British soldiers opened fire on civilians protesting against the Rowlatt Act, an extension of the oppressive wartime ‘emergency measures’, in the Amritsar Massacre (1919), which proved to be a turning point for many Indian nationalists. The white colonies of settlement earned their spurs during the war, as

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
Grassroots exceptionalism in humanitarian memoir
Emily Bauman

beneficiaries in mass capacity, confronting greater exigencies of service delivery, accountability and public relations, its discourse and biographies have become increasingly planned, standardised and scientific. Originally consisting of a few small emergency-driven charity groups in the first half of the twentieth century, the humanitarian industry has since the Second World War become ‘increasingly

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Constructing environmental (in)justice
Anneleen Kenis

air quality on (or off) the public agenda are at least as important. From observing particular levels of “air pollution” to a “public health emergency,” from “high” to “illegal levels” of air pollution, from the number of “deaths” to the number of “costs, from ‘people’s health’ to “children’s health,” from “the loss of 1 year of life expectancy/person” to “40,000 premature deaths a year”: whether concerns about air pollution are framed in terms of health problems, health inequality, real estate prices, or the potential for further city ­development – ­the chosen

in Toxic truths
International man of stories
Peter Morey

consolation. The first novel, Such a Long Journey, asks questions about the trustworthiness of language as communication in a climate of political intrigue and duplicity and, while concluding that the consolations of friendship and loyalty are to be recommended, also acknowledges their temporary nature. A Fine Balance carries these interests onto the battlefield that is the India of Mrs Gandhi’s Emergency, a terrain populated by grimacing henchman and stoical eccentrics whose larger-than-life qualities take the book beyond the realm Morey_Mistry_07_Ch7 171 9/6/04, 4

in Rohinton Mistry
Open Access (free)
Antonia Lucia Dawes

of emergency’. However, the situation with migrant arrivals was nothing new. Italy had declared ‘migration emergencies’ almost every year in the previous decade. This had justified temporary measures to address the issue – including the issuing of six-month ‘humanitarian visas’, holding people for many months in reception centres and illegal expulsions at sea – instead of necessitating long-term solutions for the core problem that there were no legal ways for people to enter Europe and claim their right to sanctuary (Perkowski 2012 ). In the six years since I

in Race talk
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

in 1949 and Scotland in 1950 showed how the British public reacted in the face of an epidemic. The effects of smallpox were local. When the disease came to a specific area, its population sought protection via emergency vaccination, even when they had not wholeheartedly embraced routine infant vaccination. While this control worked at a subnational level, it existed to deal with an international threat – and was coordinated by the national government. Smallpox was a foreign disease, particularly prevalent in South Asia, but it was not one that was necessarily

in Vaccinating Britain