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Civilisation, civil society and the Kosovo war
Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen

the system of cosmopolitan security which Kant had argued would be the culmination of human history. Therefore, the alliance of democracies that came into being after the Second World War was regarded not only as an alliance of states but as the culmination of Western civilisation. 45 History, Gress ironically points out, was constructed as a progression ‘from Plato to NATO’. 46 Therefore, when

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Open Access (free)
Warfare, politics and religion after the Habsburg Empire in the Julian March, 1930s– 1970s
Gaetano Dato

Italian Risorgimento and the process of national unity progressively forced the border back east. With the First World War and the end of the Austro-​Hungarian Empire, the Kingdom of Italy also conquered Trieste and infiltrated the Balkans, while the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes emerged. Fascism’s strong nationalist policy violently repressed the Slavic minorities in the region. Between 1943 and 1945, the Second World War caused the territory to be annexed to the Reich and named Adriatisches Küstenland (Adriatic Littoral), with Trieste as its capital. A

in Human remains in society
Caroline Rusterholz

and had ‘studied the problem there’, 9 thereby portraying her as both a national and international expert. Wright started by presenting what she considered to be the essential element for setting up an international movement for birth control, namely the fact that the input should come from within each country. She adopted a stance that she would keep while reactivating the international movement of planned parenthood after the Second World War: while acknowledging that financial and advisory help could prove

in Women’s medicine
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

, aggression and conflict, was to lead directly to the Second World War. Fascism was anti-internationalist in regard to national identity, but promoted a form of internationalism with other fascist movements involved in their own struggle against liberalism, communism and bourgeois democracy. A kind of ‘fascist international’ was created by Mussolini and Hitler to advance the movement against its enemies in

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Zuzana Jezerska

. Countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Romania and even Austria and Hungary were re-created on the map of Europe. The free progress of new countries did not last too long. After the Second World War (1939–45), just about twenty years later, the strategic territory of Central Europe was again reshaped by the new superpowers. The Eastern part THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE of it fell under the influence of the Soviet Union, except Yugoslavia and Albania, which achieved a measure of autonomy after breaking with Stalin’s regime. The Soviet Union

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Open Access (free)
The past as prologue
Kerry Longhurst

all former incarnations of the German State, the profound rupture brought by the Second World War, followed by the Western-sponsored rearmament of West Germany point to a highly fractured backdrop to current security policy. This book argues that in the protracted phase of West German rearmament, which stretched from 1949 to 1956, a fresh strategic culture was actively constructed. This strategic culture emerged out of the intense collective physical and moral trauma in West Germany, manifest in the notion of Stunde Null, or ‘zero hour’, combined with the

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)
R. A. Melikan

jurisdiction over individuals or the power to determine 7 R. A. Melikan individual accountability for international crime. A permanent international criminal court was proposed by the League of Nations as early as 1937, but it failed to receive any significant support.26 After the Second World War the United Nations undertook a long and what looks to be a successful campaign to create a court, but the century ended with the ratification process incomplete. Such international criminal prosecutions as occurred during the twentieth century, therefore, took place in tribunals

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

There has been some work on Labour’s defence and security policy since the Second World War, but this has not covered foreign policy as such.12 None of the major studies of the Labour Party subject Labour’s foreign policy Vic00 10/23/03 3:53 PM Page 3 INTRODUCTION 3 to sustained analysis. David Howell argues that both the Attlee and Wilson governments emphasised bi-partisanship in foreign policy and had an enduring attachment to nationalism and real-politik over a socialist foreign policy or even liberal idealism, but his analysis is very limited in depth.13

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Bonnie Evans

countries jostled to display their imperial power and national prowess. Children were often used as examples of the thriving British race, as in the 1937 Festival of Youth in which the king and queen, along with 60,000 others, watched a 10,000-strong display of British youth at Wembley Arena. 1 With the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, displays of prowess turned to outright military conflict. In Britain

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

is suggested here, lies in considering the enduring importance of the post-Second World War ‘Atlantic Community’ that has developed amongst the NATO members, and the de facto extension of its boundaries since the end of the Cold War. Serb activities in Kosovo, it is argued, represented not a territorial threat to NATO but rather a challenge to the core values for which it claimed to stand. A response was thus deemed

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security