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Conflict continues

between anti-​clericals and clericals, had worsened with the separation of Church and State in December 1905, and continued up to 1914.7 Yet at the outbreak of war, and for the remainder of the conflict, Catholics generally offered support for the national effort.8 Much work has been carried out on the implicit and explicit religious undertones in the ‘war cultures’ of belligerents, and, more specifically, in France itself.9 However, few works deal exclusively with religion in occupied France. Patrick J.  Houlihan emphasised the way in which transnational Catholicism

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
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Beyond the witch trials

process was the use and changing definition of ‘superstition’ – a subject that is ripe for further research.8 The word has long been used in a derogatory 4 Beyond the witch trials sense to describe what were perceived to be unfounded, credulous or heretical beliefs. Ancient Roman and Greek authors applied it to ‘uncivilised’ people outside the Classical world. The early Church used it in its campaign against the pagan religions which it ultimately vanquished. In Reformation Europe the word became a confessional swear word used by Protestants to characterise Catholic

in Beyond the witch trials

local churches to ‘fight the good fight’, whether at home or abroad, whilst men of a Quaker background were some of the first to have their consciences officially recognised by the tribunals established to deal with cases of conscientious objection after the implementation of the Military Service Act of January 1916 (which, incidentally, exempted ministers of religion from military service). Sometimes, previously firm religious feelings could be adversely affected by exposure to the reality of the war at the front. For 2nd Lt. Kenneth Campbell of the 9th Argyll and

in A war of individuals
Reflections on the relationship between science and society from the perspective of physics

mathematicians revolved around the law of large numbers. The law can be described with a simple example: if you keep flipping an unbiased coin, the proportion of heads will approach 1/2 as the number of flips goes to infinity. This notion seems intuitively obvious, but it gets slippery when you try to state it precisely and supply a rigorous proof (Hayes 2013). There was a basic and important philosophical difference between the two mathematicians. Nekrasov was at Moscow University, a stronghold of the Orthodox Church, where he started his studies in theology and then

in The freedom of scientific research
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power, attempting to ensure its preservation by becoming the judicial voice of Catholic leadership in the peninsula. This represented a paradox, since the Church relied on the assistance of the state it was trying to control, to enforce its jurisdiction over Italian society.Was this artificial assimilation of Jews into the broad category of offenders not part of the papacy’s continual assertion of power, which it seemed to be losing through conflicts of jurisdiction with the early modern secular states? Papal control over professing Jews continued into the eighteenth

in Jews on trial
The Moslem question in Bosnia-Hercegovina

. Steven Runciman, by contrast, argued that Trvtko was ‘Orthodox by conviction and a friend of the Patarenes [the heretical church of Bosnia] from policy’.44 There was a similar confusion over later figures. The ethnic identity of one sixteenth century vizier in the Sultan’s court, Mehmed Paša Sokolović, was hotly contested. Paul Tvrtković claimed him for the Croats, while Radovan Simardzić asserted his Serbian origin.45 These are but three of many examples of how different aspects of history – religious affiliation versus lineage – were used to assert competing

in Balkan holocausts?

Beyond the witch trials unusual examples of witch-bottles began to appear in addition to the more traditional ones. In the grave of a young adult at All Saints Church, Loughton, Buckinghamshire, a late seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century glass steeple bottle was discovered lying between the left humerus and upper chest. The bottle contained several copper pins and a number of pins were also stuck into the cork. The bottle contained liquid that may be urine, although no analysis has yet been attempted on this substance. The author of the report into the bottle

in Beyond the witch trials
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The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990

-based Field Day, poems like those of Seamus Heaney and Eavan Boland, plays like those of Brian Friel and Frank McGuinness, all enabled re-readings and re-imaginings to occur, and so paved the way for the new perspectives associated with the 1990s. The preceding decade witnessed increasing strains in the intricate relationship between the Catholic Church and the State, particularly over the ethics of family policy. These were very much a sign of what was to come in the following decade when many of the traditionalists’ victories were overturned. Conservative groups in

in Irish literature since 1990
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The clergy and emigration in principle

beyond such local considerations, however. As the influence of Malthus demonstrates, what Boyd Hilton has termed the ‘rage of Christian economics’ did not bypass Ireland.23 Richard Whately, former professor of political economy at Oxford, and cheerleader for the new science, was appointed to the Church of Ireland archbishopric of Dublin in 1831, from where he continued to make the case against the introduction of an Irish poor law, and in favour of emigration as a preferable alternative. As he had previously elaborated, emigration offered a means of quick and permanent

in Population, providence and empire
Harold Moody and the League of Coloured Peoples

the moral and spiritual teaching of his home and that which he received from the North Street Congregational Church and the Christian Endeavour branch in Kingston. 15 Congregationalism combined a thoughtful, critical Biblicalism with a social agenda which appealed to the serious and scholarly-minded Moody. Many Congregationalists, including Moody, had a high view of

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain