Geir Hønneland
and
Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

with status as federal subjects). The federal subjects vary widely with respect to both population and territory. Whereas the autonomous areas comprise more than 50 per cent of the federation’s territory, they contain only 18 per cent of its population. The most controversial issue of Russian politics during the years 1992–93 was the elaboration of a new federal constitution. The primary controversy ran along the basic fault lines in Russian politics: the division of power between the President and the Parliament, and between federal authorities and the regions. The

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Open Access (free)
Paul de Rapin de Thoyras’s Histoire
Ben Dew

chapter.5 In the thirty years following its publication, Rapin’s Histoire received three separate English translations,6 sold around 18,000 copies,7 and spawned a range of derivative texts.8 It also contained, as Hugh Trevor-Roper has argued, ‘the classic exposition of the Whig – the “old Whig” – interpretation of history’.9 From this perspective, England’s past was the story of the ongoing survival of the nation’s Saxon constitution in the face of a series of threats from innovating monarchs and their proto-Tory supporters. Such an account, TrevorRoper noted, was

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Open Access (free)
Better ‘the Hottentot at the hustings’ than ‘the Hottentot in the wilds with his gun on his shoulder’
Julie Evans
,
Patricia Grimshaw
,
David Philips
, and
Shurlee Swain

of African people living within their borders. The 1839 Constitution of the Boer Republic of Natalia had enshrined annual elections – but for adult White males only. The 1858 Transvaal Constitution stated specifically that ‘the people desire to permit no equality between coloured people and the white inhabitants of the country, either in church or state’. But in the two British colonies, the position

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
Julie Evans
,
Patricia Grimshaw
,
David Philips
, and
Shurlee Swain

vote in the Glen Grey district even from people who would qualify by virtue of individual tenure. After the South African War, the question of ensuring sufficient ‘Native labour’ for the mines and farms played an important part in deciding the political powers allowed to Indigenes under the Union Constitution and the legislation of the early Union governments. All the colonial politicians operated within

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

increasingly heated, resulting in ostracisation and separation.14 It was a time of uncertainty for regimes and peoples, but it was a time when regimes fought back. Derogation from constitutional clauses and establishment of emergency powers gave regimes seemingly unlimited power to respond to protest movements in whatever way was deemed necessary. Although a number of constitutions possessed clauses that limited the time under which emergency legislation could be imposed without review, such powers were rarely challenged.15 Through derogating from legal obligations, regimes

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

reluctance to make changes to the constitution on the grounds that this is likely to be disruptive to the political process. Change has largely been the result of a breakdown of the system, rather than from any conscious policy decisions. For example, the powers of the House of Lords were reduced as a result of the Liberal government budget crisis in 1909, Ireland was partitioned in 1921 in order to avoid a civil war, the institution of life peers was developed in 1958 to head off growing demands for abolition of the House of Lords. In all these cases, reform was forced on

in Understanding British and European political issues
Ben Dew

’.7 The politically charged atmosphere in which history was written and read was also affected by the role that historical argument played in the period’s ideological conflicts. As J. G. A. Pocock has argued: what occurred was that belief in the antiquity of the common law encouraged belief in the existence of an ancient constitution, reference to which was constantly made, precedents, maxims and principles from which were constantly alleged […]; and discussion in these terms formed one of the century’s chief modes of political argument. Parliamentary debates and

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Open Access (free)
Europeanisation and Belgian federalism
Christian Franck
,
Hervé Leclercq
, and
Claire Vandevievere

obligations. However, at an international level, the Belgian state could be held liable, as in the case of environmental protection, a field in which regions often fail to act or are late or negligent. Under Article 169 of the constitution, the federal authority can take the place of the region or community which has not fulfilled an ‘international or supranational obligation’, provided that beforehand the state has been ‘sentenced by an international or supranational court for not fulfilling’ this obligation. The state then has the power to implement ‘the enacting terms of

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Between political controversy and administrative efficiency
Kenneth A. Armstrong
and
Simon Bulmer

distinctive. But that is not to say that there has been no impact of EU membership. The UK constitution is in the process of undergoing major reform as part of the Blair government’s political agenda of modernisation. European integration is among the stimuli for this change. Political context The United Kingdom was not a founder member of the European Communities. Neither of the two main political parties was prepared to 2444Ch17 3/12/02 2:07 pm United Kingdom Page 389 389 engage with European organisations that went beyond intergovernmental forms of co

in Fifteen into one?
Arthur B. Gunlicks

on the other hand. It was, therefore, a compromise among monarchical, democratic, federal, and unitary principles within a constitutional framework that provided for a complicated division of powers and the de facto dominance of Prussia. Prussian dominance continued even after the founding of the Kaiserreich in 1871 that adopted with some revisions the North German Constitution as its own. The Kaiserreich included the three south German states for a total of twenty-five states, ranging in size from Prussia, with three-fifths of the population and two-thirds of the

in The Länder and German federalism