consumerism in earlymodernEngland’,
Journal of Social History, 24 (1990), p. 259.
34 Campbell, London Tradesman, pp. 296–7.
Pawnbroking and the urban poor
35 The Poor Man’s Friend, or the Frauds of the Pawnbrokers Exposed (London,
H. Chance, c. 1835), pp. 6–7.
36 An Apology, pp. 15–16.
37 Gentleman’s Magazine, xxii (1752), p. 284.
38 30 Geo 2 c. 24.
39 24 Geo 3 c. 42.
40 W. Godwin, The Adventures of Caleb Williams (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 254.
41 B. Lemire, ‘Peddling fashion: salesmen, pawnbrokers, taylors, thieves
and the second-hand clothes
Administration, Volume III: Visitation Articles and
Injunctions, 1583–1603 Alcuin Club Collection, 27 (London: Alcuin Club, 1924),
F. Furet and J. Ozouf, Reading and Writing: Literacy in France from Calvin to Jules
Ferry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Keith Thomas, ‘The
Meaning of Literacy in EarlyModernEngland’, in G. Baumann (ed.), The Written
Word (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), 97–131, at p. 111.
See Glanmor Williams, ‘Unity of Religion or Unity of Language? Protestants
and Catholics and the Welsh Language 1536–1660’, in Jenkins (ed.), The Welsh
Colonialism, Jewishness and politics in Bacon’s New Atlantis
EarlyModernEngland (Athens and London, University of Georgia Press, 1996).
10 See Edward Surtz and J. H. Hexter (eds), Utopia (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1965), pp. i–xxxii.
11 On Plato’s geography see J. A. Stewart, The Myths of Plato (London,
Macmillan & Co, 1905), pp. 457–69.
14/10/02, 9:45 am
Colonialism, Jewishness and politics
12 On de Gomara’s text see William Brandon, New Worlds for Old: Reports
from the New World and their Effect on the Development of Social Thought in
Europe, 1500–1800 (Athens, Ohio, Ohio University Press
. 139); recipes for both yrchouns and appraylere are
edited by Austin (Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, pp. 38, 39).
Felicity Heal reminds us that for the guest, or outsider, the unfamiliar
household was a ‘potentially hostile environment’; the guest’s ‘very
security’ is dependent on the ‘belief that [the] host will obey the laws of
hospitality: Hospitality in EarlyModernEngland (Oxford 1990), p. 192. In
an informative study of table manners that insists on the violence
inherent in eating, Margaret Visser proposes that ‘[b]ehind every rule of
Michael Alssid points out that the play associates the heroines
with the witches in various ways.11 The connection between Isabella
and Theodosia and the witches is clearest when they disguise
themselves ‘with Vizors like Witches’ in order to trick and scare
away some of the foolish characters (v.120), but there are also
subtler indications of this affinity. Isabella’s vicious verbal attacks
on her hapless fiancé Sir Timothy are particularly witch-like, given
the close association between scolding and witchcraft in earlymodernEngland. Isabella also threatens
instance, R. H.
Popkin and A. Vanderjagt, Scepticism and Irreligion in the Seventeenth and
Eighteenth Centuries (Leiden and New York: E. J. Brill, 1993); and R. H.
Popkin, The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979; 1st edn 1960).
60 On the public role of the figure of the atheist see, for instance, M. Hunter, ‘The
Problem of Atheism in EarlyModernEngland’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 35 (1985).
61 J. Gunnell, ‘The Myth of the Tradition’, in P. King (ed.), The History of Ideas
(New Jersey: Croom
, 2000). Specifically on witchcraft narratives, see for
example Marian Gibson, Reading Witchcraft: Stories of Early English
Witches (London, 1999) and Malcolm Gaskill, Crime and Mentalities
in EarlyModernEngland (Cambridge, 2000).
To use Michael Shermer’s phrase Why People
Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions
by the 1590s was already canonized as an author, with Shepheardes
Calender and Faerie Queene also to be viewed as canonized texts, and
these works were also central in terms of inspiring other English poets
to create pastoral and epic poetry modeled on Spenser’s. But although
satire as a genre lacked prestige in earlymodernEngland, “diuine Master
Spencer” also published a number of satirical poems in the innocuous
and medieval-sounding Complaints volume,2 and these, not famous but
2 The classic analysis of complaint versus satire is John Peter’s Complaint
tenet of this study is that Biblical history and teleology have
contributed greatly to the development of many forms of ethnic national identity. Liah Greenfeld, in her study of nationalism, posited that the return to Old
Testament narratives and myths of divine election was of central importance
in the development of the first nationalism (which she locates in earlymodernEngland), and by extension to all subsequent national movements. Similarly,
Michael Walzer has noted the importance of Biblical exodus history, and how
it has shaped the ‘civic
Charity and the economy of makeshifts in eighteenth-century Britain
account see The London Chronicle, 17–19 November 1763, p. 486.
Joanna Innes, ‘“The mixed economy of welfare” in earlymodernEngland: assessments of the options from Hale to Malthus (c. 1683–
1803)’, in M. Daunton (ed.), Charity, Self-Interest and Welfare in the
English Past (London, UCL Press, 1996), pp. 139–80 (pp. 147–9);
Eden, State, I, p. 465.
D. Andrew, ‘On reading charity sermons: eighteenth-century Anglican solicitation and exhortation’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 43
(1992), pp. 581–91.
Public Advertiser, 2 May 1775.
D. Andrew, ‘“To the charitable and